Lecture_3_DulaiS09_ALT

Lecture_3_DulaiS09_ALT - Lifes Chemical Basis Chapter 2...

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Life’s Chemical Basis Chapter 2 Dulai-Spring2009 BIO 001 Alternative Slides
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Impacts, Issues: What Are You Worth? ± Fifty-eight elements make up the human body
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1.1 Start With Atoms ± The behavior of elements, which make up all living things, starts with the structure of individual atoms
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Characteristics of Atoms ± Atoms are the building blocks of all substances Made up of electrons, protons and neutrons ± Electrons (e - ) have a negative charge Move around the nucleus ± Charge is an electrical property Attracts or repels other subatomic particles
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Characteristics of Atoms ± The nucleus contains protons and neutrons Protons (p + ) have a positive charge Neutrons have no charge ± Atoms differ in number of subatomic particles Atomic number (number of protons) determines the element Elements consist only of atoms with the same atomic number
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Characteristics of Atoms ± Isotopes Different forms of the same element, with different numbers of neutrons ± Mass number Total protons and neutrons in a nucleus Used to identify isotopes
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The Periodic Table ± Periodic table of the elements An arrangement of the elements based on their atomic number and chemical properties Created by Dmitry Mendeleev
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2.2 Putting Radioisotopes to Use ± Some radioactive isotopes – radioisotopes are used in research and medical applications
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Radioisotopes ± Henri Becquerel discovered radioisotopes of uranium in the late 1800s ± Radioactive decay Radioisotopes emit subatomic particles of energy when their nucleus breaks down, transforming one element into another at a constant rate Example: 14 C 14 N
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Tracers ± Tracer Any molecule with a detectable substance attached ± Examples: CO 2 tagged with 14 C used to track carbon through photosynthesis Radioactive tracers used in medical PET scans
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2.1-2.2 Key Concepts: Atoms and Elements ± Atoms are particles that are the building blocks of all matter; they can differ in numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons ± Elements are pure substances, each consisting entirely of atoms with the same number of protons
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2.3 Why Electrons Matter ± Atoms acquire, share, and donate electrons ± Whether an atom will interact with other atoms depends on how many electrons it has
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Lecture_3_DulaiS09_ALT - Lifes Chemical Basis Chapter 2...

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