Lecture_13_DulaiS09_Metab

Lecture_13_DulaiS09_Metab - How Cells Release Chemical...

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How Cells Release Chemical Energy – How I gain energy from my food Chapter 7
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Objectives 1. Learn glycolysis. 2. Understand the fundamental differences between 1. Glycolysis 2. fermentation, and  3. glycolysis followed by aer-obic respiration.  3. Why fermentation or aerobic respiration. 4. Raw materials and products of: 1. Glycolysis 2. Fermentation 3. the Krebs cycle, and 4. electron transfer phosphorylation. 5. Describe how fats and proteins can enter the pathways of energy  release.
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Making ATP Plants make ATP during photosynthesis Cells of all organisms ( including plants ) make ATP by breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and protein (food)
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Main Types of Energy-Releasing Pathways Aerobic pathways Evolved later Require oxygen Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm Completed in mitochondria Anaerobic pathways Evolved first Don’t require oxygen Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm Completed in cytoplasm
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I REPEAT: Energy-Releasing Pathways: Special locations for each!
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Overview of Aerobic Respiration C 6 H 12 0 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 glucose oxygen carbon water dioxide
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YOU need to remember there are 3 phases Understand each one on its own Then you may put them together
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Step 1 This is the process of: GLYCOLYSIS (Glucose breakdown)
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Main Pathways Start with Glycolysis Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes Glucose 2 Pyruvate (six carbons molecule) (three carbons)
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The Role of Coenzymes NAD + and FAD accept electrons and hydrogen from intermediates during the first two stages – Like cellular Taxi Cabs When reduced, they are NADH and FADH 2 In the third stage, these coenzymes deliver the electrons and hydrogen to the transfer chain
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Overview of Aerobic Respiration cytoplasm mitochondrion GLYCOLYSIS ELECTRON TRANSPORT PHOSPHORYLATION Krebs Cycle ATP ATP start reactions 2 CO 2 4 CO 2 2 32 water 2 NADH 8 NADH 2 FADH 2 2 NADH 2 pyruvate e - + H + e - + oxygen (2 ATP net) glucose TYPICAL ENERGY YIELD: 36 ATP e - e - + H + e - + H + ATP H + e - + H + ATP 2 2 3 1
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A simple sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Atoms held together by covalent bonds Glucose
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Glycolysis Occurs in Two Stages Energy- requiring steps ATP energy activates glucose and its six- carbon derivatives Energy- releasing steps The products of the first part are split into three-carbon pyruvate molecules ATP and NADH form
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Energy- Requiring Steps ATP ATP 2 ATP invested ENERGY-REQUIRING STEPS OF GLYCOLYSIS glucose ADP ADP P P P P glucose–6–phosphate fructose–6–phosphate fructose–1,6–bisphosphate DHAP
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course SS 101 taught by Professor Denver during the Spring '10 term at Alabama.

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Lecture_13_DulaiS09_Metab - How Cells Release Chemical...

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