Lecture_13_DulaiS09_Metabolism

Lecture_13_DulaiS09_Metabolism - How cells release chemical...

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1 How cells release chemical energy Lecture 13 Chapter 8
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2 All organisms need carbon to build organic compounds (all biological macromolecules are organic compounds) All organisms need energy to live, in particular to synthesize carbon-based compounds Terms autotroph and heterotroph describe the carbon and energy source of organisms. What is the source of carbon of organisms? What is their source of energy? Photoautotrophs… Chemoautotrophs… Chemoheterotrophs… Photoheterotrophs…
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3 Regardless of its source, energy must be made available to organisms in a form that can drive thousands of life-sustaining chemical reactions. This universal source of energy is ATP.
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4 Photoautotroph and chemoautotroph organisms make ATP and use it to make glucose and other carbohydrates. However, all organisms (regardless of whether they are autotroph or heterotroph) produce ATP by breaking down glucose and other carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids The chemical pathways by which energy is released as ATP are called energy-releasing pathways Energy-releasing pathways are intracellular, occurring in the cytosol and the mitochondria (in eukaryotes) Energy-releasing pathways
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5 Aerobic pathways • Require oxygen • Glycolysis starts in cytoplasm • Completed in mitochondria (only in Eukaryotes) Anaerobic pathways • Do not require oxygen • Glycolysis starts in cytoplasm • Completed in cytoplasm Two main types of Energy-releasing pathways
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6 C 6 H 12 0 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O glucose oxygen carbon water dioxide Summary Equation for Aerobic respiration (with glucose as starting material) Aerobic respiration is the process by which glucose (and other organic compounds) is oxidized into CO 2 and H 2 O (exergonic) This process yields ~36 ATP molecules (endergonic) Requires oxygen ATP ADP
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7 Overview of the 3 stages of aerobic respiration (in a eukaryotic cell) CYTOPLASM MITOCHONDRION GLYCOLYSIS ELECTRON TRANSPORT PHOSPHORYLATION KREBS CYCLE ATP ATP energy input to start reactions 2 CO 2 4 CO 2 2 32 water 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 2 NADH 2 pyruvate e - + H + e - + oxygen (2 ATP net) glucose ENERGY YIELD: 36 ATP ENERGY YIELD: 36 ATP e - e - + H + e - + H + ATP H + e - + H + 6 not 8 (mistake in book)
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8 Glycolysis: the first step in aerobic and anaerobic reactions Starts with glucose : a (mono/di/poly?)saccharide (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
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Lecture_13_DulaiS09_Metabolism - How cells release chemical...

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