Lecture_20_DulaiS09_DNAtoProtein

Lecture_20_DulaiS09_DNAtoProtein - 1 From DNA to proteins...

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2 From DNA to proteins Chapter 14
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3 What you already know about DNA… - A molecule of DNA is a polymer of four different deoxyribonucleotides. - In natural conditions, DNA is found as a double helix of two hydrogen-bonded strands (i.e., two molecules). - DNA stores genetic information: each organism of a particular species has the same genome (same size, same chromosome number, same set of genes, etc.) with different allele combinations though. - One copy of this genome is found in every cell of an organism (whether it is unicellular or multicellular). - A genome is transmitted from one cell to its two daughter cells at every cell division (whether it is prokaryotic fission or mitotic cell division) because it is able to make a copy of itself before cell division (through replication). - In meiosis (only in some eukaryotes), the genome content is reduced by half before two sex cells (nuclei) reunite at fertilization (cytoplasmic + nuclear fusions).
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4 Lots of questions still remain… - How does the genome (DNA) give instructions to cells so they can do all the things they do (e.g., cell differentiation)? - How does the DNA blueprint get turned into proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, etc.? - Biochemical reactions would not occur without enzymes . Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. E.g., from glycolysis to DNA replication, these reactions occur because of various enzymes that catalyze each step in the process The formation of proteins is key in the cellular machinery of life (molecular biology)
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5 The “Central Dogma” of molecular biology Note that Retroviruses (such as HIV) have RNA genomes; the RNA is “converted” into DNA, using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, once the virus invades the cell Reverse transcriptase DNA sequences of bases (of nucleotides) encodes protein sequences of amino acids This process takes place in two steps: transcription and translation
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6 In the 1960s & 1970s,
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course SS 101 taught by Professor Denver during the Spring '10 term at Alabama.

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Lecture_20_DulaiS09_DNAtoProtein - 1 From DNA to proteins...

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