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Lecture_26_DulaiS09_SpeciationEndosymbiosis

Lecture_26_DulaiS09_SpeciationEndosymbiosis - Test yourself...

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Test yourself : A few extra questions regarding how we determine if a population is evolving. • 1. What are two ways you can determine if a population is evolving? What information do you need for each? How are they similar? How do they differ? • 2. What conditions, if any, restrict the use of Hardy-Weinberg? That is, can it be used to examine multiple loci simultaneously or a single locus for which there are more than two alleles in a population?
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Test yourself : A few extra questions regarding how we determine if a population is evolving. • 4. Imagine that a population is no longer experiencing selection so that mating is random in the most recent parental generation. What will the allele frequencies of the offspring generation be under these circumstances? Why? Will the genotype frequencies of the offspring generation be the same as those of the parental generation? Why or why not? Please explain. • 3. Imagine that a population is experiencing selection. Will the allele frequencies of the offspring generation be the same as those of the parental generation? Will the genotype frequencies of the offspring generation be equal to those predicted by Hardy-Weinberg? If not, why ? What causes this deviation from predicted?
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Recap…
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What is macro evolution? Refers to patterns and trends in evolution that have taken place over long periods of time (ex. thousands to millions to hundreds of millions of years).
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What is macro evolution? · Ex. How did complex animals evolve from common ancestor with sponges? · Ex. Major changes in body architecture that occurred during evolution of major animal groups Porifera Cnidaria Echinodermata Chordata Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Nematoda Platyhelminthes Brachiopoda
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Why is macroevolution, unlike microevolution, particularly difficult for people to comprehend? •Diversity of life forms evolved over incomprehensible amounts of time. ANSWER IS TIME – DEEP TIME! • Seems to demand more radical changes than we imagine can be generated by microevolutionary processes.
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So what is a species specifically? How do biologists recognize species? • species = Latin for type or kind • Prior 1940’s species distinguished based on morphological differences Stephanoscyphus Nausithoe punctata Anas platyrhynchos • Problems: Intraspecific variation, ex.
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