Lecture_30_DulaiS09_CommonChallenges2

Lecture_30_DulaiS09_CommonChallenges2 - Principles of...

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1 Principles of physiology (in two multicellular taxa) How Land plants and Animals work Lecture 30 – Chapter 28
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2 Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy is the study of an organism’s form (or structure) Physiology is the study of how the body functions In unicellular organisms , anatomy and physiology correspond to how a single cell is built and how it interacts with its habitat In multicellular organisms , things are more complicated: all the cells of an organism must work together so that the whole organism can survive in its habitat
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3 Atom Molecule Cell Organism Population/species Community Ecosystem Biosphere Tissue Organ Organ System
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4 Animals and land plants are multicellular, but they are not the only ones… Animals Choanoflagellates Microsporidia Fungi Pelobionts Entamoebae Eumycetozoa Lobosea Various amoebae Ciliates Apicomplexa Dinoflagellates © Perkinsus Haptophytes Heterokonts Cryptophytes © Glaucocystophytes Rhodophytes Land plants Charophytes Chlorophytes Chlorarachniophytes Cercomonads Foraminifera Diplomonads Retortamonads Carpediemonas Parabasalids Core Jakobids Heterolobosea Euglenozoa © Trismastix Oxymonads Malawimonas However… 1) Their multicellularity displays a high degree of complexity (e.g., number of cell types, complex organ systems) 2) Their multicellularity and their physiology are intensively studied
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5 Major themes in physiology Anatomical organization . - In order to understand how a multicellular body functions, one needs to know its organization -The anatomy of a multicellular organism is a structural hierarchy: cell < tissues < organs < organ systems < organism There are certain tasks that all multicellular organisms (e.g., land plants and animals) need to accomplish, such as: - Cell-to-cell communication - Coordination among organ systems (e.g., in animals: immunological defense, digestive system, excretory system , nervous system) - Internal transport of materials from one part of the body to another (e.g., water and sugar transports in land plants) - Maintenance of a stable internal environment ( homeostasis ) The notion of adaptation : organisms are extremely well adapted to the natural habitat where they live
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6 Levels of anatomical organization (in animals) from the cell to the organism
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7 Major Organ Systems in Animals Integumentary Muscular Skeletal (varies among animals) Nervous (not in all animals) Endocrine (in vertebrates only) Lymphatic (in vertebrates only)
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course SS 101 taught by Professor Denver during the Spring '10 term at Alabama.

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Lecture_30_DulaiS09_CommonChallenges2 - Principles of...

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