LAB BIO2 - Victor Cruz Portillo BIO 150 Scientific...

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Unformatted text preview: Victor Cruz Portillo BIO 150 Scientific Investigation 24 Sept. 2010 / 1 Oct. 2010 The Class for BIO-150L-SAS03 Introduction The scientific method is the process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct a reliable, consistent and non-arbitrary representation of the world. Scientists ask questions, make observations, develop explanatory hypotheses, and test those hypotheses (Campbell & Reece, 2008, pp. 18-24). Scientists study previous research or personal observations of natural phenomena as a basis for asking questions about the underlying causes or reasons for these phenomena. As questions are asked, scientists attempt to answer the questions by proposing possible explanations that something observed called hypotheses. A scientifically useful hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable, in order to prove or disprove. The test of a hypothesis may include experimentation, additional observations, or the synthesis of information from a variety of sources. An experiment involves defining variables, outlining a procedure, and determining controls to be used as the experiment is performed. An experiment will never begin an experiment without a prediction of the outcome of the experiment (Morgan & Brown Carter, 2008, pp. 2-9). Within the experiment, the dependent variable will be measured or counted or observed in response to the experimental conditions. The scientist will choose the independent variable, a variable that will be manipulated in order to test the investigators hypothesis. Controlled variables must be kept constant during the course of the experiment as the controlled variables are assumed in experimental design that the selected independent variable is the one affecting the dependent variable (Morgan & Brown Carter, 2008, pp. 2-9). After the variables are decided, a procedure, or a stepwise methodology, must be indicated for the experiment. In order to outline the procedure, a level of treatment, or the set of value for the independent variable must be based on previous research and preliminary measurements. The experiment design will always include a control in which the independent variable is held at an established level or is omitted, as the experiment design is serves as a benchmark that allows other scientist to decide whether the predicted effect is really due to the independent variable. The procedure must be formed in order to allow other sciences to replicate the results to produce consistent results with the control and the independent variable (Wilson, 1991, pp. 37-39). In this experiment, mental chronometry, or the use of response time in order to perform operations of movement will be studied. The elapsed time between the stimulus and the operation of movement will be recorded as Reaction time, the measurement in which mental chronometry is calculated. The Reaction Time indicates how fast the thinker can execute the mental operations needed by the task at hand (Jensen, 2006, pp. 43-49)....
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LAB BIO2 - Victor Cruz Portillo BIO 150 Scientific...

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