LAB BIO4 - Respiration and Fermentation

LAB BIO4 - Respiration and Fermentation - Victor Cruz...

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Victor Cruz Portillo BIO 150 Respiration and Fermentation 8 Oct. 2010 / 15 Oct. 2010 Estefania Yactayo, Nadile Tousseant, Laetiera Compas, Gisellis Correa
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Introduction Cellular respiration is an ATP-producing catabolic process that allows for the release of energy from organic compounds by metabolic chemical oxidation in the mitochondria within each cell (Morgan & Brown Carter, 2008). Cellular respiration is most often described as the oxidation, or the breakdown, of glucose. Cellular respiration is an aerobic process, as it will need oxygen in order to be the electron acceptor needed in the chemical process (King, 2004). One important process in cellular respiration is the Kreb Cycle, or the citric acid cycle. The Kreb cycle is a series of enzymes catalyzing chemical reactions that begin with the introduction of acetyl-group with oxaloacetate to form citrate. The citrate then goes through a series of chemical transformations, losing two carboxyl groups as CO 2 . The carbons lost as CO 2 originate from what was oxaloacetate, not directly from acetyl-CoA. The carbons donated by acetyl-CoA become part of the oxaloacetate carbon backbone after the first turn of the citric acid cycle. Loss of the acetyl-CoA-donated carbons as CO 2 requires several turns of the citric acid cycle. However, because of the role of the citric acid cycle in anabolism, they may not be lost, since many TCA cycle intermediates are also used as precursors for the biosynthesis of other molecules. Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD + , forming NADH. For each acetyl group that enters the citric acid cycle, three molecules of NADH are produced. At the end of each cycle, the four-carbon oxaloacetate has been regenerated, and the cycle continues (King, 2004). In one section of the Kreb Cycle process, succinate is produced and later broken down to the 4-carbon Fumarate by dehydration, or the release of a hydrogen atom through a reduction- oxidation reaction with FAD, an electron shuttle molecules, and gains the hydrogen atom to form FADH2 (Morgan & Brown Carter, 2008). In this step of the Kreb Cycle, a substance called
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DPIP, an electron acceptor molecule, is added to the chemical reaction in order to change the color of the reaction to distinguish the Fumerate production by cellular respiration with an instrument called a spectrophometer that detects the absorption of light by the pigment of DPIP Fermentation is an anaerobic reaction, which means it does not an oxygen molecule in order to complete the chemical reaction of fermentation. In fermentation, pyruvate molecules, already broken down from glucose by glycolysis, is converted ATP molecules and to another substance (McInerney & Gieg, 2004). In alcoholic fermentation, yeast, an eukaryotic micro- organism, breaks down glucose to form ATP for energy and release ethanol alcohol and other byproduct such as carbon dioxide and water (Bamforth, 2008). In the experiment of Alcoholic Fermentation, the hypothesis for this experiment shall be
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course BIO 150 taught by Professor Gioradano during the Fall '10 term at SUNY Suffolk.

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LAB BIO4 - Respiration and Fermentation - Victor Cruz...

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