Chapter 18 review - Chapter 18 review 1. Differentiate...

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Chapter 18 review 1. Differentiate between nonspecific immune defenses and specific immune defenses . Nonspecific : defenses that protect against ALL pathogens (phagocytes) o Based on carbohydrates and lipid for detecting the presence of foreign cells is a key feature that distinguishes nonspecific from specific, which recognize foreign cells mainly by specific proteins the foreign cells produce Specific : protection against specific pathogens o Depends upon a specific recognition by lymphocytes 2. What are the major cells of the immune system and their general functions? WBC (leukocytes): neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes and Lymphocytes Leukocytes use the blood mainly for transportation and leave the circulatory system to enter the tissues where they function. 1. Neutrophils : (70%) multinucleate o Site produced in bone marrow o Function: phagocytosis; release chemicals involved in inflammation (vasodilators, chemotaxins, etc.) 2. Basophils : (<2%) o Site produced in bone marrow o Mediate an inflammatory response o Release histamines 3. Eosinophils : (<1%) o Site produced in bone marrow o Destroy multicellular parasites o Participate in immediate hypersensitivity reactions 4. Mast Cells : o Site produced in bone marrow; reside in almost all tissues and organs; differentiate from bone marrow cells o Recognized by large number of cytosolic vesicles o Mediate an inflammatory and allergic response o Release chemicals such as histamines 5. Monocytes : (unique cell shape, nucleus takes up majority of the cell) o Found in blood, once in tissue then are converted to macrophages o 3 to 7 days in bloodstream o Phagocytosis o Secretion of toxic chemicals and cytokines o Process and present antigen to helper T-cells
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6. Macrophages : o Found in all tissue, but strategically placed where they will encounter targets (skin, respiratory, digestive) o Phagocytosis o Extracellular killing via secretion of toxic chemicals o Secrete cytokines (IL-1) involved in inflammation, activation, and differentiation of helper T-cells, and systemic responses to infection or injury (the acute phase response) o Process and present antigen to helper T-cells 7. Lymphocytes : o Mature in bone marrow and thymus; activated in lymphoid organs o 3 classes: B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells o Function as recognition cells in specific immune response . o Ability to secrete inflammatory mediators and function as phagocytes 3. Describe the nature and basic functions of cytokines . Understand why their physiology is complex. Low molecular weight protein produced by immune cells that regulate host cell division (mitosis) Function in both nonspecific and specific immune defenses Act as paracrine and autocrine agents Some cases, they circulate in the blood to exert hormonal effects on distant organs and tissues involved in host defenses They are the chemical communication network that allows different immune system cells to “talk” to one another (cross-talk)
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Chapter 18 review - Chapter 18 review 1. Differentiate...

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