Bis2CFall10.Lecture3

Bis2CFall10.Lecture3 - Lecture 3: BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND...

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Lecture 3: BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Lecture 3 Phylogeny 3: Characters Monday, September 27, 2010
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Where we are going and where we have been • Previous lecture : 2. Phylogeny 2: Trees, Taxa and Groups • Current Lecture: 3. Phylogeny 3: Characters • Next Lecture: 4. Phylogeny 4: Phylogenetic Inference Monday, September 27, 2010
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Lecture 3 Outline • Characters Character traits and states • Trait ancestry Homology Ancestral and derived Synapomorphy Homoplasy and its causes Monday, September 27, 2010
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Characters Character: a heritable feature of an organism Also known as a character trait or trait . Character state: the particular form that a character takes. • Example: Character = heart Character state = present/absent Character state = # of chambers Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Mapping characters onto a tree reveals ancestry Mapping characters onto a tree helps reveal their ancestry Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Example 1 Most recent common ancestor (MRCA) had a “smiley face” Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f MRCA split into two branches. Each inherited “smiley face” feature Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Descendants maintained “smiley face” over time. Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Descendants maintained “smiley face” over time, even through other “speciation” events. Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Descendants maintained “smiley face” over time, even through other “speciation” events. Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f All taxa (a-h) inherited “smiley face” feature. Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Simplified view: Highlight nodes Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Simplified view 2: Add color to branches. Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Simplified view 3 Example 1 Monday, September 27, 2010
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Homologous characters • Characters (i.e., features like the smiley face) that are inherited from a common ancestor are homologous. • Other examples:??? Monday, September 27, 2010
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Change happens • Species change over time • Known (generally) as divergence, or divergent evolution . • This change over time is due to the combination of multiple factors including mutation recombination drift selection (see Bis2B, Bis1B). Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f Example 2 MRCA had a “smiley face” Monday, September 27, 2010
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a b c d e h g f MRCA split into two branches. Each inherited “smiley face” feature Example 2 Monday, September 27, 2010
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b c d e h g f One lineage evolved into the sad, frowning form.
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course BIS 2C 54181 taught by Professor Eisen during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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Bis2CFall10.Lecture3 - Lecture 3: BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND...

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