Bis2CFall10.Lecture8

Bis2CFall10.Lecture8 - Lecture 8 BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND...

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1 Lecture 8 BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Lecture 8: The Tree of Life and the Three Domains Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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2 Where we are going and where we have been • Previous lecture : 7. The Three Domains of Life • Current Lecture: 8. The Three Domains Continued; Intro to Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity • Next Lecture: 9. Bacteria and archaeal diversity contd. Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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3 Lecture 7 Outline • A: Major Features of Each Domain • B. Using the Rooted Tree of Life to Trace Evolution of Major Features • C. Introduction to Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity • D. Diversity of Form • E. Diversity of Function • F. Phylogenetic Diversity Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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Nobel Prize in Chemistry 4 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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Chemistry Prize 5 Molecule Makers CHEMISTRY Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki share the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing new, more efficient ways of linking carbon atoms together to build the complex molecules that are improving our everyday lives. Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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A. Major features of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes 6 A. Major features of three domains Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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No modern organism is “primitive” All three domains are the result of billions of years of evolution and are well adapted to present-day environments. None is “primitive” The earliest prokaryote fossils date back at least 3.5 billion years, and even then there was considerable diversity. 7 Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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A rooted tree of life 8 Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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Each of the three domains contains numerous species but in the summary tree we don’t show them. There is an implied common ancestor of the species included in bacteria. Ditto for Archaea and Eukarya. Reminder: We do not always show all branches in a tree 9 Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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Bacteria and Archaea vs. Eukaryotes see p561-3 and Ch 4.2-5 Feature Bac Arc Euk Cell structure Nucleus - - + Other membrane bound organelles - - + Cytoskeleton - - + Flexible cell envelope (i.e., no rigid cell wall) - - + Transcription & translation Coupling of transcription & translation + + - Splicing of protein coding genes - - + Chromosome structure/ features Linear + centromeres, telomeres - - + Circular + + - Plasmids + + - Operons + + - Cell division Mitosis - - + Binary fission + + - Recombination mechanisms Meiosis / sexual reproduction (and diploid) - - + Lateral gene transfer (and haploid) + + - 10 Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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Bacteria and Archaea vs. Eukaryotes see p561-3 and Ch 4.2-5 Feature Bac Arc Euk Cell structure Nucleus - - + + Cytoskeleton + + - + + Circular - Plasmids - Operons - Cell division Mitosis + Binary fission - Recombination mechanisms Meiosis / sexual reproduction (and diploid) - - + Lateral gene transfer (and haploid) + + - These are generalities not hard and fast rules 11 Wednesday, October 6, 2010
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Bacteria and Archaea vs. Eukaryotes see p561-3 and Ch 4.2-5 Feature Bac Arc Euk Cell structure Nucleus - - + Other membrane bound organelles - - + Cytoskeleton - - + Flexible cell envelope (i.e., no rigid cell wall) - - + Transcription & translation Coupling of transcription & translation + + - Splicing of protein coding genes - - + Chromosome structure/ features
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Bis2CFall10.Lecture8 - Lecture 8 BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND...

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