Bis2CFall10.Lecture7

Bis2CFall10.Lecture7 - Lecture 7: BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND...

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1 Lecture 7: BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Lecture 7: The Tree of Life and the Three Domains Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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2 Where we are going and where we have been • Previous lecture : ! 6. The Tree of Life • Current Lecture: ! 7. The Three Domains of Life • Next Lecture: ! 8. Bacterial and archaeal diversity Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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3 Lecture 7 Outline • A: The First Full Tree of Life • B: Rooting the Tree of Life • C: Major Features of Each Domain • D. Using the Rooted Tree of Life to Trace Evolution of Major Features Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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A. The first tree of life to include all organisms 4 Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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5 http://mcb.illinois.edu/faculty/profile/1204 Carl Woese Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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12.3 From Gene to Protein 6 Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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7 The Ribosome Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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8 rRNA structure Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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9 rRNA Systematics • All cellular organisms have ribosomes • All have homologous subunits of the ribosomes including specific ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNAs (i.e., these are universally homologous genes ) • Woese determined the sequences of ribosomal RNAs from different species • The sequences are highly similar but have some variation Each position in a rRNA can be considered a distinct character trait • Each position has multiple possible character states (A, C, U, G) Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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Alignments • Method of assigning homology to individual residues in different sequences • Allows one to have multiple traits within individual genes • Each column in alignment = a different character • Each residue (ACTG) = state 10 Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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Alignments 11 • Similar in concept to lining up bones from different species Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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Alignment is guided by 2D and 3D rRNA structure 12 Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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13 Phylogenetic inference • Three categories of phylogenetic inference. ! The methods differ in how they pick which tree of all the possible trees is the “best” ! Parsimony : the best tree is the one requiring the fewest evolutionary steps ! Distance: the best tree is the one in which the branch lengths correspond as closely as possible to the degree of similarity between taxa ! Likelihood : the best tree is the one that has the highest probability of producing the observed data (given a model of evolutionary change) Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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Woese 1987 - rRNA Microbiological Reviews 51:221 14 Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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15 4.7 Eukaryotic Cells (Part 1) Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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16 4.4 A Prokaryotic Cell Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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17 26.23 Some Would Call It Hell; These Archaea Call It Home Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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18 Table 26.1 The Three Domains of Life on Earth Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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19 Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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20 The Tree of Life 2006 adapted from Baldauf, et al., in Assembling the Tree of Life, 2004 Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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21 The Tree of Life 2006 adapted from Baldauf, et al., in Assembling the Tree of Life, 2004 Plants, animals and fungi Tuesday, October 5, 2010
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