Bis2CFall10.Lecture9

Bis2CFall10.Lecture9 - Lecture 9 BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND...

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1 Lecture 9 BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Lecture 9: Diversity of Bacteria and Archaea continued Friday, October 8, 2010
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2 Where we are going and where we have been • Previous lecture : ! 8. Intro to B&A diversity • Current Lecture: ! 9. Bacteria and archaeal diversity contd • Next Lecture: ! 10. Microbial eukaryote diversity Friday, October 8, 2010
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3 Lecture 9 Outline • Diversity of form • Diversity of function • Phylogenetic diversity • Using the phylogeny • Lateral gene transfer Friday, October 8, 2010
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Diversity of form III: groupings of cells 4 D3. Groupings of cells Friday, October 8, 2010
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Groupings of cells Nearly all bacteria and archaea are unicellular. In chains or clusters, each individual cell is fully viable and independent. Associations arise when cells adhere to each other after binary fission. Chains are called filaments , which may be branching, or be enclosed in a tubular sheath. 5 Friday, October 8, 2010
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Fruiting bodies Photo 26.24 Fruiting body of gliding bacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca . SEM. 6 Friday, October 8, 2010
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7 Friday, October 8, 2010
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Diversity of form III: biofilms Growth and division, formation of matrix Mature biofilm Binding to surface Irreversible attachment Matrix Free-swimming prokaryotes Single-species biofilm Signal molecules Signal molecules Attraction of other organisms 8 Friday, October 8, 2010
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Biofilms are everywhere •Contact lenses • Artificial joint replacements • Dental plaque •Water pipes, etc. •Fossil stromatolites (layers of biofilm & calcium carbonate) 9 Friday, October 8, 2010
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Diversity of form IV: motility 10 D4. Motility Friday, October 8, 2010
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11 Diversity of form: Motility Many bacteria and archaea are motile (i.e., they can move) Flagella Bacterial flagella consist of a single fibril of flagellin, plus a hook and a basal body responsible for motion. The flagellum rotates around its base. Helical bacteria, such as spirochetes, have a corkscrew-like motion using modified flagella called axial filaments. Some have gliding and rolling mechanisms. Friday, October 8, 2010
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Diversity of form IV: motility Flagella 12 Friday, October 8, 2010
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Figure 4.5 Prokaryotic Flagella (Part 2) Rotor Inside of cell Outside of cell Transport apparatus Drive shaft Filament of flagellum Plasma membrane Outer membrane Peptidoglycan 13 Friday, October 8, 2010
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Figure 26.6 Structures Associated with Bacterial and Archaeal Motility 14 Friday, October 8, 2010
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Vibrio motility 15 Friday, October 8, 2010
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B. Diversity of function 16 B. Diversity of function Friday, October 8, 2010
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