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Unformatted text preview: STUDY GUIDE – BIS 2C, PLANTS AND FUNGI These are not traditional study questions, but I hope they may be useful as guidelines in studying the material and in distinguishing what’s important from more minor details. I have attached trees from the lecture slides that cover the groups you should know about. In some cases I’ve given names for taxa that you don’t have to know (such as genera of aquatic streptophytes, other than Coleochaete); I’ve put these names in smaller font. You should know the main clades, such as green plants, land plants, vascular plants, lycophytes, euphyllophytes, seed plants, conifers, gnetophytes, angiosperms, monocots, eudicots, fungi, terrestrial fungi, dikaryotic fungi, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes, and their synapomorphies. For each synapomorphy, you should know what the corresponding ancestral state was. You should know what outgroups of the major clades say about the order in which their features evolved, such as Coleochaete and Charales relative to land plants, progymnosperms relative to seed plants, the “ANITA” lines in angiosperms, and “chytrids” and “zygomycetes” relative to dikaryotic fungi. When synapomorphies involve new structures, you should have an idea of how these structures function, since they are often vital aspects of the biology of the clade and intimately connected with its success. I have explained what the structures look like and how they develop in more detail than you need to know, largely to make them more concrete and vital than just words on a cladogram. Use the cladograms to follow the evolutionary story line developed in lecture and as a guide for reviewing information in the book, which is not quite as phylogenetic. Knowing the phylogeny and where characters evolve means you have to memorize much less than you would if you tried to memorize every character of every group separately. Every member of a clade above the point where a synapomorphy originates should have that synapomorphy, unless it has been lost by reversal or modified into another structure, whereas lines that branch below the origin of a synapomorphy should lack it, unless it evolved independently by convergence. Be sure you recognize cases of convergence on the trees, especially those that were stressed in lecture. The most important life cycles are the basic cycles of aquatic streptophytes (Coleochaete and Charales), land plants (as seen in “bryophytes” and ferns), heterosporous lycophytes (as in Selaginella), seed plants (as in cycads and conifers), angiosperms, zygomycetes, euascomycetes, and holobasidiomycetes. When studying life cycles, be sure you understand the events shown in the cycle, the names of the structures in which they occur, and something about how the structures function. Keep track of the ploidy level of cells at all stages of the cycle to check that you understand what's happening. In plants, think of how the various cycles fit in the general trend for elaboration of the sporophyte and reduction of the gametophyte, and understand what happened to the gametophytes in angiosperms. In this course I’ve introduced fossils mostly for what they say about the origin of living groups. Thus you should have some picture of “rhyniophytes” and Psilophyton and what they say about the origin of leaves, “progymnosperms” and the order of origin of seed plant synapomorphies, “seed ferns” and the original leaf morphology of seed plants and the origin of the seed, and early conifers and the origin of the female cone in living conifers. However, you don't have to worry about the names of fossil genera or their ages. Red algae
Glaucophyta Green plants Cyanophora chlorophyll b loss of p hycobilins loss of ﬂagella starch stored in chloroplast loss of p eptidoglycan Plantae cellulose cell wall endosymbiosis w ith cyanobacterium
two ﬂagella Chlorophytes Streptophytes Land plants Spirogyra Chlorokybus Land plants Charales
Coleochaete Mesostigma numerous chloroplasts oogamy: egg & sperm branched ﬁlaments Klebsormidium apical growth ( >meristems) phragmoplast, plasmodesmata ﬁlaments (multicellularity) multilayered structure (lateral ﬂagella) chlorophyll b , starch in chloroplasts Land plants = Embryophytes
spt Liverwort Moss sporangium Hornwort Vascular p lant
(tracheophyte) leaves on gpt stomata spore branched s pt vascular tissue green sporophyte archegonium antheridium cuticle rhizoids DELAY OF MEIOSIS mycorrhizae alternation of generations: origin of sporophyte antheridia and archegonia sporangia air-dispersed spores: sporopollenin wall 1 Lycophytes Euphyllophytes Pteridophytes Seed plants Pine Ferns
Lycopodium Horsetails Psilotales loss of roots reduced leaves cylindrical g pts fernlike l eaves? Ophio. reduced leaves whorled leaves “progymnosperms” axillary branching seeds compound leaves leptoaxillary sporangia sporangia microphylls roots Zosterophyllum lateral sporangia
Aglaophyton multiﬂagellate s perm overtopping roots typical tracheids branched s porophyte vascular tissue secondary growth (2o xylem, phloem, & periderm Simple leaves = Heterospory Nonmotile sperm naked seeds Opposite leaves Vessels Secondary growth Net-veined leaves 2+2 m icrosporangia Carpel: ovules enclosed Two integuments Reduced gametophytes Double fertilization Nonmotile sperm CARPEL seeds enclosed Unisexual ﬂowers? Loss of 2o growth Parallel veins Monosulcate Loss 2o growth Tricolpate 2 Absorptive heterotrophy Chitin walls Sporangium with rhizoids and chitinous w all Haploid life cycle zoospore Allomyces: alternation of generations zygosporangium alternation of generations? paraphyletic! paraphyletic! Loss of motile cells Terrestrial form mycorrhizae Dikarya
Septate hyphae Dikaryotic s tage “Hemiascomycetes” Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes
Taphrina Euascomycetes Saccharomyces yeasts ascocarp Dimorphic: hyphal and yeast-like stages ASCOMYCOTA
ascus; conidia/budding? “Heterobasidiomycetes” Rusts Smuts Holobasidiomycetes Mushrooms etc. Multicellular dikaryotic fruiting structures = basidiocarps Mostly parasites on angiosperms BASIDIOMYCOTA
basidium; clamp connections? 3 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course BIS 2C 54181 taught by Professor Eisen during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.
- Fall '10