Bio2051_test1material

Bio2051_test1material - Chapter 1 Can get micro book buy...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Can get micro book, buy e-book, or buy each chapter Wwnorton.com Can go to the website and look up the book. There is a study space. It gives question and flashcards Tuesday, January 13, 2009 9:00 AM Microbiology- study of organisms too small to be seen with naked eye (ex: bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi) • Most are not harmful (most are beneficial) • They are everywhere! Importance • Medicine • Make antibiotics • Control disease • Agriculture • Nitrogen fixing bacteria (nodules filled with “Rhizobium”) • Food Industry • Beer, wine, bread, yogurt, pickles, • Genetic Engineering • Using bacteria to make commercial products • Insulin, growth hormone, vitamins • Crops resistant to pests, heat, pesticides, etc. • Keeps us Alive • Recycle nutrients • Produce vitamins • Degrade organic matter • Causes Disease • HIV, colds, STD’s, flu, food poisoning Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery What Is a Microbe? • 6 major groups studied by microbiologists • Prokaryotes 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea • Eukaryotes 1. Algae (water) 2. Protozoa (water also) 3. Fungi (bread mold for example. A lot look fuzzy.) • Viruses - non cellular. They do not have a membrane, or nucleus. When not inside a host cell, they are inert. Microbes Shape Human History • Microbes affect food availability • Destroy crops, but preserve food • Microbial diseases change history • Black plague in Europe • Smallpox in America • More soldiers have died from infections than battle wounds • TB, AIDS Discovery of Microbes • Light microscope invented in 1600s • Mid-1600s: Robert Hooke observes small eukaryotes • 1st to use the term "cells" Antoni van Leeuwenhoek -1676 • Built simple microscopes • Described "wee animalcules" • Published first drawings of bacteria (prokaryotes) Microbes Are Living Organisms • Microbes arise only from other microbes • No spontaneous generation • 1861: Pasteur shows that microbes do not grow in liquid until introduced from outside • Spontaneous generation-idea that living things arise from non-living matter • He disproved this using broth in swan necked flasks (pasteur flasks) • Sterilized broth by boiling, bent necks of flasks so that air could enter but microbes would be caught in neck. • led to development of methods for controlling growth of microorganisms • Pasteurization – use of moderate heat to reduce the number of microorganisms. • Used in foods like milk, wine, oysters • "Germ theory of disease" - they started thinking that microorganisms may also be causing diseases • Resulted in vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, rabies...
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Bio2051_test1material - Chapter 1 Can get micro book buy...

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