Bio2051_test3material

Bio2051_test3material - Chapter 13 and 14 Thursday 8:40 AM...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 and 14 Thursday, March 12, 2009 8:40 AM Chapter 13 Energetics & Catabolism Chapter 14 Respiration, Lithotrophy, & Photolysis • Sun is ultimate energy source • Photosynthesis • Captures light, stores as chemical energy • Heterotrophy • Uses captured chemical energy • Build other chemicals • Waste • Each step gives off heat energy Metabolism • Catabolism • Breaking down molecules for energy. (taking glucose and breaking it down into smaller components) (a catastrophe, things are broken. Generates energy) • Anabolism • Using energy to build cell components. (cell walls, CM, proteins. Requires energy) • Metabolism • Balance between catabolism and anabolism • Central biochemical pathways used for both • TCA cycle (citric acid cycle), glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt Electron Transfer • Major source of cell energy • Passage of electrons releases energy : Requires electron donor, electron acceptor • Electron transport chain found in all cells • Different donors, acceptors depending on the organism • For a lot of organisms the donor might be glucose and an acceptor might be oxygen • Electron energy can be stored • Short term or long term Phosphorylation Energy- see Fig 13.6a • Less energy than oxio-reduction • Useful energy level for most cell reactions • No electron donor or acceptor • Phosphate added via dehydration (ADP to ATP. Loss of an H2O) • Released via hydrolysis (ATP to ADP) • ATP most common • GTP sometimes is used Catalysis and Enzymes • Activation energy- energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state.( It breaks bonds) • Enzymes - catalytic proteins; speed up biochemical reaction rates by lowering activation energy • Active site - portion of an enzyme to which substrate binds. • Substrate -------enzyme-----------> product(s) Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate -> aldolase enzyme -> glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate + dihydroxyacetone phosphate • Very specific for their substrate • Cellulose vs. starch example. Both made of glucose. Bonds that connect them are different. Cellulase can only break down Cellulose. The bonds prevent it from breaking down starch. Enzymes can have small non-protein molecules that help in catalysis but aren't part of the enzyme or the substrate Two types: Prosthetic groups- bound tightly to their enzyme, usually covalently and permanently Example- heme group in cytochromes Coenzymes- loosely bound to their enzyme May move from enzyme to another A lot of them are derivatives of vitamins Example- NAD+, derivative of niacin - will attach to an enzyme, help a reaction...
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Bio2051_test3material - Chapter 13 and 14 Thursday 8:40 AM...

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