Hrincevich+CH+3+student+outline

Hrincevich+CH+3+student+outline - Biological Molecules...

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Biological Molecules Chapter 3
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Importance of Carbon
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Carbon’s Bonding Behavior Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms
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Methane: Simplest Organic Compound H H H H C
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Most Biological Molecules are Carbon Based Versatility: forms 4 covalent bonds Organic molecules = C + H Only made by living things
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Double Bonds Rings
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Humans and Global Warming Fossil fuels are rich in carbon Use of fossil fuels releases CO 2 into atmosphere • Increased CO 2 may contribute to global warming
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Organic Compounds Hydrogen and other elements (listed below) covalently boned to carbon - Carbohydrates - Lipids - Proteins - Nucleic acids
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Bonding Arrangements Carbon atoms can form chains or rings Other atoms project from the carbon backbone Glucose (ball-and-stick model
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Hemoglobin Molecular Models Ball-and-stick Space-filling model
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Functional Groups Atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone Give organic compounds their different properties
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Examples of Functional Groups • Methyl group -CH 3 Hydroxyl group -OH • Amino group -NH 3 + Carboxyl group -COOH • Phosphate group -PO 3 - Sulfhydryl group -SH
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How Are Organic Molecules Synthesized?
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Organic molecules in ALL living orgs share two similarities 1. Use same functional groups 2. Formed by the modular approach -stick subunits together like cars in train Monomer single unit Dimer double Polymer many
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Types of Reactions Functional group transfer Electron transfer Rearrangement Condensation Cleavage
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Hrincevich+CH+3+student+outline - Biological Molecules...

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