Chapet 1 - Lecture Notes

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Chapter 1: Matter and Measurement
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1.1 Classifying Matter Matter : Anything that occupies volume and contains matter. Volume : The amount of space that matter occupies. Example: A cube with a side of 10cm occupies 1000 cm 3 of space. (volume of a cube = side 3 ) Mass : The quantity of matter in an object. Example: The mass of a sample of Carbon is 12g. The most basic unit of matter is the atom . Even though atoms are tiny, they do have mass and do have volume.
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Matter can exist in 3 states: 1. Solids : Have a definite shape and a fixed volume. There are strong attractive forces between particles that make up solids, so these particles are held tightly together. Because they are held tightly together there is little room for any type of movement besides vibration. 1. Liquids : Have NO definite shape but do have a fixed volume. The attractive forces between particles in aliquid are not as strong as those in a solid, so these particles are more free to move. This allows liquids to take on the shape of their container. 3. Gases : NO definite shape, NO definite volume. There are no attractive forces between particles in a gas (ideally), so these particles are free to move. They collide into each other and into the walls of their container. Therefore, gases occupy the complete volume of the container.
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States of matter and energy: Kinetic energy : This is the energy of motion Potential energy : This is the energy of position. Since each state of mater contains particles that have various forms of movement, we can describe the states in terms of kinetic energy. Solids : Low KE (remember, the particles only vibrate) Liquids : Moderate KE (Particles are less attracted, but some attraction still exists, which does not allow their motion to be completely random). Gases : High KE (Particles are not attracted, so there is no restriction of movement)
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States of matter, energy and temperature: Since we can describe the states of matter in terms of KE, we can also apply temperature! Temperature : A measurement of the average KE of a system. Low temperature = Low KE (solids) Moderate temperaturte = Medium KE (liquids) High temperature = High KE (gases) Think of H 2 0: Ice = 0°C (solid) Water = 4°C - 99°C (liquid) Water Vapor = 100°C and above (gas)
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Matter can exist in 3 states, but how do we classify it? 1. Pure substances : Composition is the same throughout the entire sample. Examples: Pure gold (Au) or Pure water (H 2 0). Gold is an example of an element, and water is an example of a compound. •Have a unique set of properties that can be recognized. •Can not be seperated into other substances by any physical manipulation (boiling, freezing) 2. Mixtures : Made of two or more pure substances not chemically combined. Mixtures can be categorized as follows:
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 4317 taught by Professor Cunycsichemistrydepartment during the Fall '08 term at Staten Island.

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Chapet 1 - Lecture Notes

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