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Chapter 5 - 5.1 Properties of Compounds in aqueous...

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5.1 Properties of Compounds in aqueous solutions Solution a homopgenous mixture with two or more substances. Solvent: Dissolves in the Solute Solute: Dissolves the solvent. NaCl(aq) : NaCl is the solute, water is the solvent Ionic Compounds in Aqueous Solution Many reactions involve ionic compounds, especially reactions in water, Any solute in water is called and aqueous solution.
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How do we know that ions are present in aqueous solution? The solutions will conduct electricity. Solutes that dissolve in water are called electrolytes. •HCl, KMnO 4 , MgCl 2 and NaCl are strong electrolytes. This means that they disassociate almost completely into ions. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is a weak electrolyte. This means that it does not dissolve completely into ions when in water. It will be a weak conductor of electricity. Many other substances dissolve in water but do not ionize. These are nonelectrolytes. Their solutions do not conduct electricity. Some examples are gllucose, ethanol and ethylene glycol (antifreeze)
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Solubility of ionic compounds in water; Not all ionic compounds dissolve in water. Some are insoluble. See figure 5.3 in your text.
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5.2 Precipitation Reactions The driving force is the formation of an insoluble compound, which is known as a precipitate. Use the table of solubility to determine if the products of a chemical reaction form a precipitate. Example : Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 KI (aq) 2 KNO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) Net Ionic equation : ions that participate in the reaction represented. Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 I (aq) PbI 2 (s) Spectator Ions : Ions that do not participate in the reaction. They remain in solution. This is the K and the NO3 Example 2: AgNO 3 (aq) + KCl (aq) AgCl (s) + KNO 3 (aq) Net Ionic Equation: Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s) Spectator Ions: K and NO 3
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5.3 Acids and Bases Acids : Donate H+ into solution. They are H containing compounds that ionize in solution. Some examples of strong acids include: HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4 H + (aq)+ HSO 4 2- H + + SO 4 2- Sulfuric Acid HClO 4 H + (aq)+ ClO 4 (aq) Perchloric HNO 3 H + + NO 3 Nitric Weak acids include: CH 3 COOH or acetic actid H 2
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