C120slides 1-39

C120slides 1-39 - CHAPTER 1 Structure and Bonding ; Acids...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 CHAPTER – 1 – Structure and Bonding ; Acids and Bases Atomic Structure A) Nucleus – extremely small 1) PROTONS – charge = +1, mass = 1 2) NEUTRONS – charge = 0, mass = 1 B) Electron Cloud – large cloud surrounding the nucleus ELECTRONS – charge = -1, mass 0
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 C) All atoms are neutral - # electrons = # protons D) Chemical Properties are determined by those Electrons most distant from the nucleus (outermost electrons) . E) Position of electrons are described in terms of four quantum numbers . I - PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER . .( N ) N = 1,2,3,4…. .etc. only integer values The greater the value of N the greater the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. The greater the value of N the greater the energy of the electron.
Background image of page 2
3 II – AZIMUTHAL QUANTUM NUMBER ……( L ) L = N-1,N-2,N-3…….0 The L value is related to the shape of the orbit of the electron. The greater the value of L the greater the energy of the electron. The greater the value of L, the greater the distance from the nucleus. III – MAGNETIC AZIMUTHAL QUANTUM NUMBER . . ( M L ) M L = L,L-1, L-2…. .0…. .-L-2,-L-1, -L The M L quantum number is related to the direction of the electron orbit. Electrons with the same N and L quantum numbers but different M L quantum numbers have the same energy. We say the electrons are degenerate.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 IV – SPIN MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER ( M S ) The M S quantum number can have only two values +1/2 and –1/2. These two states are degenerate. ENERGY DIAGRAM OF QUANTUM STATES
Background image of page 4
5 DETERMINATION OF ELECTRON DISTRIBUTION OF AN ATOM A) Pauli exclusion principle – no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers. B) The number of electrons in the atom equals the atomic number. C) Nature always seeks the lowest energy- Electrons will always seek the lowest energy state available .
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
HUNDS RULES 1)WHEN THERE ARE SEVERAL DEGENERATE STATES AVAILABLE, THE ELECTRONS WILL FIRST OCCUPY DIFFERENT M L STATES. 2)WHEN 2 OR MORE ELECTRONS OCCUPY DIFFERENT
Background image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 39

C120slides 1-39 - CHAPTER 1 Structure and Bonding ; Acids...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online