edhd320examonestudyguide

edhd320examonestudyguide - EDHD 320 Exam One Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: EDHD 320 Exam One Study Guide 01:16 Chapters One to Six 3 Basic issues in human development continuous or discontinuous: • continuous- a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with • discontinuous- a process in which new and different ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times one course of development or many • contexts- unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change nature or nurture? • Nature- biological givens, based on genetic inheritance • Nurture- physical and social world influence biological and psychological development • Stability- individuals high or low in a characteristic remain so at later ages, early experience may have lifelong impact • Plasticity- change is possible, based on experiences Lifespan perspective • Development is: • Lifelong, multidimensional and multidirectional, highly plastic, influenced by multiple forces What is theory? • an orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains, predicts behavior Fixation in Freud’s theory • Oral 0 to 1 yr sucking needs • Anal 1 to 3yr toilet training • Phallic 3 to 6yr Oedipus/ electra conflict • Latency 6 to 11yr new social values develop • Genital Adolescent sexual impulses reappear • NEED to be gratified at one stage before moving on to the next stage Erikson’s theory (focus on the first two stages) • Basic trust vs. mistrust 0 to 1yr o From warm care infants gain sense of trust or confidence that the world is good. Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort and are handled harshly • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 1 to 3yrs o Using new mental and motor skills children want to choose and decide for themselves autonomy is fostered when parents permit reasonable free choice and do not force or shame the child • Initiative vs. guilt 3 to 6yrs • Industry vs. inferiority 6 to 11yr • Identity vs. role confusion Adoles • Intimacy vs. isolation early adult • Generativity vs. stagnation middle adult • Ego integrity vs. despair late adult • At each stage children develop either a positive or negative outcome Behaviorism—operant conditioning, social learning • Classical conditioning o Stimulus-response • Operant conditioning o Reinforcers and punishments • Social Learning o modeling Piaget’s theory (focus on sensorimotor stage) • Sensorimotor 0 to 2yr o Infants think by acting on the world with there eyes ears hands and mouth as a result invent ways of solving simple problems such as pulling or putting objects in containers...
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2010 for the course EDHD 320 taught by Professor Parkinson during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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edhd320examonestudyguide - EDHD 320 Exam One Study Guide...

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