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Ch. 2 - Stress-The Constant Challenge

Ch. 2 - Stress-The Constant Challenge - WhatIsStress...

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What Is Stress? 27/09/2010 19:44:00 Stressor: A situation that triggers physical and emotional reactions Stress response: Reactions Stress: The general physical and emotional state that accompanies the stress  response  Physical Responses to Stressors Actions of the Nervous System o Autonomic nervous system: The branch of the nervous system that  controls basic body processes Parasympathetic division: In control when you are relaxed Sympathetic division: Activated during times of arousal  o Norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic  nervous system onto specific tissues to increase their function  Actions of the Endocrine System o The system of glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones into the  bloodstream to influence metabolism and other body processes The Two Systems Together o Cortisol: A steroid hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland Epinephrine: A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal  glad that affects the functioning of organs involved in  responding to stressors Endorphins: Brain secretions that have pain-inhibiting effect o Fight-or-flight reaction: A defense reaction that prepares an individual  for conflict or escape by triggering hormonal, cardiovascular,  metabolic, and other changes The Return to Homeostasis o The parasympathetic division of your autonomic nervous system takes  command and halts the stress response Homeostasis: A state in which blood pressure, heart rate,  hormone levels, and other vital functions are maintained within a  narrow range of normal  The Fight-or-Flight Reaction in Modern Life
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o Often absurdly inappropriate Many stressors we face in everyday life do not require a  physical response  Prepares the body for physical action regardless of whether  such action is a necessary or appropriate response Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors Effective and Ineffective Responses o Common emotional responses to stressors include anxiety,  depression, and fear Often can moderate or learn to control them o Somatic nervous system: Manages our conscious actions  Effective behavioral responses can promote wellness and  enable us to function at our best Personality and Stress o Personality: The sum of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional  tendencies  Type A: Ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive, and  hostile  Type B: Relaxed and contemplative  Type C: Anger suppression, difficulty expressing emotions,  feelings of hopelessness and despair, and an exaggerated  response to minor stressors o
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