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Unformatted text preview: PSYC420 Exam Two Study Guide CHAPTER SIX Determine when and why surveys are used in behavioral research. Goal is to produce a snapshot of the opinions attitudes or behaviors of a group of people at a given time Includes interviews and questionnaires Used to gather information about a wide variety of information in a relatively short amount of time Used by businesses, advertisers, and politicians to help learn what people think, feel, or do Understand the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews versus questionnaires in survey research. Interviews, fixed or free o Adv. Rapport and trust leads to honest and open answers Efficiency- can do many in one day Get in depth info and ideas Structured better comparisons o Dis. Face to face- can get expensive cheaper over the phone Unstructured- hard to train and hard to quantify Questionnaires o Adv. Cheaper More honest because believe its anonymous Less influenced by characteristics of the experimenter o Dis. Response rate can be low May need to provide gifts or prizes Question order can make a huge difference in responses Understand how probability sampling is used to ensure that a sample is representative of the population. Used to ensure that each person in the population has a known chance of being selected to be part of the sample Increases likelihood that the sample is representative and the ability to use sample to draw inferences INCLUDES: o Simple random sampling: goal is to ensure that each person in the pop. Has an equal chance of being selected Must first have a complete list of all of the people in the pop. Then randomly select from the frame o Systematic random sampling: if the list of names on the sampling frame is itself known to be in a random sequence then use systematic First draw random number, then create rest of sample by taking the people with that number on the list Easier then simple because only one number has to be chosen then follow o Stratified sampling: When list is broken up into subgroups useful to draw separate samples from each of the subgroups Random samples drawn from within each subgroup Proportionate when all groups are same size Disproportionate when strata differ in size- researchers draw a sample that includes a larger proportion of some strata then are actually in pop. Called oversampling which provides large enough samples of the strata of interest to allow analysis o Cluster sampling: when you have no list, break the pop. Into a set of smaller groups for which there are sampling frames and then to randomly choose some of the clusters for inclusion in the sample...
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- Fall '08