edhd445finalnotes

edhd445finalnotes - FINAL EXAM NOTES Physical, Cognitive,...

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FINAL EXAM NOTES Physical, Cognitive, and Language Development in Early Childhood (2.5-5 years old) Physical Development - Gross Motor Skills o Development of visual system o Development of Balance Increase in gross motor skills Running, Jumping Throwing, Catching Asking a 2 year old to stand and one foot is hard, but for a four year old its not a big deal By the end of early childhood they reach coordinated running arms interchanging with leg motion - Fine Motor Skills o Finger dexterity and speed improve rapidly o Boys behind girls in fine motor skills Start with general shapes, then can draw people at around 4, and 5 year olds can draw letters fairly well o Increased mylenation contributes to physical skills Cognitive Development - Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) o Thought is Centered (Centration) tendency of kids to focus on one trait of something at a time Conservation tasks Used to assess children’s use of operations Do not yet understand Identity concept o The essential sameness of an object despite physical changes to it Egocentric The assumption that one’s perspective is shared by other people o 3 mountains task - Development of theory of mind
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o Do understand that people have alternative perspectives, however, just cannot take that perspective o Try to cheer up people by what would make them feel better. Understand that person is upset even though they are not. - Have poor cognitive flexibility and abstraction - Can remember and anticipate - Young Children’s Memory o Tendency to be easily distracted o Short attention spans o Have difficulty switching focus on attention o More likely to remember Things that are important to them That map onto what they already know That they encounter more than once Language Development – bigger vocab - By 5, competent speakers - Social communicated competence o The ability to effectively convey the intended message to others o If have problems with this At risk for behavior problems Poor social relationships Increases frustration - By 1 st grade 10, 000 words o Syntactic bootstrapping Use of the structures of sentences to provide cues about word meaning - Understand conversational Rules - Still having difficulty keeping conversation on topic - Understand social competence of language Self-Awareness - Preschoolers: o Have expanded sense of self and developing conscience o Erikson’s initiative vs. guilt stage (3-6) Compare themselves to others - During this period Preschools o Will describe self in physical, concrete terms rather than psychological o Overestimate what they can do and what they know
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Self-Regulation - Skills involved in monitoring and controlling thoughts, emotions, and behavior - Improves dramatically - Self control predicts later behavior and peer problems Gender Development - Gender Identity (2-3) o Understanding and acceptance that one is a boy or a girl - Gender labeling (2-3) o Labeling oneself and others on the basis of
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edhd445finalnotes - FINAL EXAM NOTES Physical, Cognitive,...

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