psyc354examthree

psyc354examthree - PSYC354ExamThreeStudyGuide...

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PSYC 354 Exam Three Study Guide     Know the differences between sensation and perception? What is universal  across cultures, and what varies? Sensation: process by which receptor cells are stimulated and transmit their  information to higher brain centers o Universal across cultures Perception: process that organizes various sensations into meaningful  patterns o Process of organization is universal o Contents that influence such organization vary: Depth- experiences in environments with different visual cues can  influence the way people see the world Time Consciousness- different cultures attend to different environmental  cues Know the explanations that have been offered for cultural differences in depth  perception: carpentered world hypothesis: the expectation that things will be rectangular  in shape front-horizontal foreshortening: vertical is interpreted as extending into  distance, so we see it as longer familiarity with 2-D representations: interpretation of pictures what illusions does each explain and why? Who is susceptible to the illusions?  What environments lead to this? Why are these cues used in those  environments? How do different cultures understand consciousness? cultures vary in the way in which they understand consciousness
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o Monists- mind and body are one o Dualists- distinction between mind and body Know the difference between monophasic and polyphasic understandings of  dreams. Monophasic: o Distinction between dreams and waking phase o Materialistic cultures o Dreams are interpreted before thought about Polyphasic: o Dreams are considered part of reality  o Traditional or spiritual cultures o Content of dreams taken literally     What were the differences between Ancient Greece and Ancient China? How  would these differences lead to differences in thought today? Greece- o Aristotle- syllogistic reasoning, attributes o Markey economy- negotiation o Politics- open debate universal laws China o Confucious- interconnections among objects
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o Agricultural economy- cooperation o Politics- harmony and virtue What is the difference between analytic and holistic thought? Analytic: focus on objects o Exist independently from context o Fixed abstract rules predict and explain behavior Holistic: focus on context o Relation among objects o Knowledge based on experience rather than fixed abstract rules Know the experiments on categorization (cow, grass, chicken), attention (fish),  and logic (flowers).  Be sure to know the explanation of the studies according to  analytic and holistic thought as well as the methods used. 
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psyc354examthree - PSYC354ExamThreeStudyGuide...

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