psyc354examtwo - hapter5:Self&Personality C SelfConcept...

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Psyc 354 Exam Two Study Guide  Chapter 5: Self & Personality     Self Concept What role does the self concept play in driving behavior? Ecology leads to your self concept which leads to your behavior Where does the self concept come from? Enculturation: availability of belief systems Socialization: social influence to adopt belief systems  The self concept results in motives which leads to behavior What is the difference between a self concept focusing on the individual as  compared to a self concept focusing on the self as interdependent with others? Self as individual- abstract, stable, can exist by itself  As interdependent- relationships with others, specific roles, membership in  groups How do Western and Eastern cultures differ in their self concepts? Western- predominantly individual attributes Eastern- predominantly social roles Within the United States, what region are more/less individualistic/collectivistic Most individualistic- northeast Midwest great plains Collectivistic- Hawaii Utah confederate south Know definitions of individualism and collectivism, including horizontal and  vertical dimensions Individualism: ties between individuals are loose, focus on self and close  family first (western cultures)
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Collectivism: integrated in strong cohesive in groups focus on groups loyalty  first (Eastern cultures) Horizontal individualist: want to be unique and self reliant not interested in  high status Vertical individualist: try to compete with others for distinction or status Horizontal collectivist: perceive themselves as part of in group and value  common goals Vertical collectivist: sacrifice personal goals for sake of in group goals  however some members have more status than others How do individualists and collectivists differ in their values? Collectivism= Value Equality: equal reward regardless of performance  o Based on need o Tend to work harder in groups than individualistic o More harmonious with in group members but have more conflict with out  group members Individualism= Value Equity: reward based on performance o Work less hard in groups social loafing o Work less hard in groups the collect Know Schwarz’s values, and how they fit into the two dimensions:  DRAW  GRAPH Conservativism-openness  Self-enhancement-self transcendence
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Know Hofstede’s cultural dimensions 1. Power distance: how much distinction between supervisor and subordinate  in high if asked something will always do it, in low input accepted can question  leaders 2. Individualism 3. Masculinity: assertiveness is valued, in low go with the flow don’t push
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