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Study Guide Exam 3

Study Guide Exam 3 - Chapter 9 Cognition Perception Know...

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Chapter 9: Cognition & Perception Know the differences between sensation and perception? What is universal across cultures, and what varies? - Sensation: The process by which receptor cells are stimulated and transmit their information to higher brain centers -This is universal across cultures - Perception: The process that organizes various sensations into meaningful patterns -Process of organization is universal Contents that influence such organization vary -Depth -Time -Consciousness Know the explanations that have been offered for cultural differences in depth perception : [Experiences in environments with different visual cues can influence the way people see the world] 1) carpentered world hypothesis : The expectation that things will be rectangular in shape -idea is that in Western civilization, we are used to seeing lots of ruler-straight lines due to the dominating style of design and architecture - we live in a carpenter ed world of square houses, rectangular doors etc. Thus when a Westerner sees Müller-Lyer-type lines, the brain unconsciously interprets them as if they were the inside or the outside of a rectangular walled building. * We interpret a set of length of line as longer when it seems to project away from us and shorter when it seems to project toward us 2) front-horizontal foreshortening: Vertical is interpreted as extending into distance, so we see it as longer *We interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines extending into the distance 3) familiarity with 2-D representations: Interpretation of pictures what illusions does each explain and why? Who is susceptible to the illusions? What environments lead to this? Why are these cues used in those environments? How do different cultures understand consciousness ? - Different cultures attend to different environmental cues -Cultures vary in the way in which they understand consciousness Know the difference between monists and dualists Monists: Mind and body are one Dualists: Distinction between mind and body Know the difference between monophasic and polyphasic understandings of dreams. Monophasic: -Distinction between dreams and waking phase -Materialistic cultures -Dreams are interpreted before thought about Polyphasic: -Dreams are considered part of reality -Traditional or spiritual cultures -Content of dreams taken literally
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Analytic & Holistic Thought What were the differences between Ancient Greece and Ancient China? How would these differences lead to differences in thought today? Ancient Greece: 1. Aristotle Syllogistic Reasoning: All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Therefore, Socrates is mortal (Start with universal principles that apply across all situations) Attributes: Objects have properties that determine how they behave (If rock falls, the attribute of the rock is it wants to fall) 2. Market Economy Negotiation: What’s good for you is bad for them & visa versa (Competition to be better than the next) 3. Politics Open Debate Universal Laws: Single law that would result in a single punishment that applies to all people Ancient China: 1. Confucius
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Study Guide Exam 3 - Chapter 9 Cognition Perception Know...

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