HLTH140 - Study Guide Exam 2

HLTH140 - Study Guide Exam 2 - Exam 2 Study Guide HLTH 140...

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Exam 2 Study Guide HLTH 140 Chapter 9 1.45 essential nutrients - 6 classes of essential nutrients of the body 1.proteins 2.fats 3.carbohydrates 4.vitamins 5.minerals 6.water -the energy in food is expressed a kilocalories -one kilocalories represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius -of the six classes of essential nutrients, three supply energy : Fat = 9 calories per gram Protein = 4 calories per gram Carbohydrate = 4 calories per gram 2.Describe complete and incomplete proteins. -proteins : compound made of amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen -form important parts of the body’s main structural components: muscles and bones -form parts of blood, enzymes, some hormones, and cell membranes - amino acids: building blocks of protein -twenty common found in food, nine are essential, other eleven can be produced by the body given the presence of the needed components supplied by food - complete proteins: supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts, most animal proteins are complete -examples: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy - incomplete proteins: do not supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts, most plant proteins are incomplete -come from other plant sources such as legumes ( vegetables such as peas and beans that are high in fiber and are also important sources of protein) and nuts -good sources of most essential amino acids but are usually low in one or two -2/3 of the protein in American diet comes from animals -recommended amount -.8 gram per kilogram of body weight -10-35% of total calorie intake -average is 15-16% 3.Function and importance of fats (lipids) to the body -most concentrated source of energy -represent usable energy, provide stored energy -help insulate your body -support and cushion organs IN DIET
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-help body absorb fat-soluble vitamins -add important flavor to texture of food -major fuel for body during rest and light activity -linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid essential components of diet (unsaturated) - triglycerides – glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids - saturated: solid at room temperature generally found in animal products leading sources in American diet are red meats, whole milk, cheese, hot dogs, and lunch meats - unsaturated: monounsaturated, polyunsaturated come from plant sources liquid at room temperature olive, canola, safflower, and peanut oils – mono soybean, corn, and cottonseed oils – poly 4.Describe hydrogenation and explain why food companies rely on it -hydrogenation: process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats, increasing the degree of saturation and turning liquid oils into solid fats -mixture of unsaturated and saturated fatty acid is produced -also changes some unsaturated fatty acids to trans fatty acids – unsaturated fatty acids with an atypical shape that affects their behavior in the body -food manufacturers use hydrogenation to increase stability of an oil so it can reused for deep frying
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HLTH140 - Study Guide Exam 2 - Exam 2 Study Guide HLTH 140...

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