Lecture9-Memory6

Lecture9-Memory6 - 10/20/10 LECTURE OUTLINE CHAPTER 7:...

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10/20/10 1 C HAPTER 7: M EMORY Lecture 9: p. 274-311 LECTURE OUTLINE The three systems/stages of memory The biology of memories Forgetting, misremembering and remembering (with bonus study tips) T HE 3 S YSTEMS /S TAGES OF M EMORY WHAT IS MEMORY? The retention of information over time Facts learned in PSC 1 Your 10 th birthday party How to ride a bike What brussels sprouts taste like Etc. WHAT ISN’T MEMORY? A perfect reproduction of the past Memories are falliable WHAT ISN’T MEMORY? A perfect reproduction of the past Memory is fallible Memory is reconstructive
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10/20/10 2 WHAT IS MEMORY? Not a singular thing! The stage theory/modal model of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) 3 separate systems of memory Encoding Retrieval Sensory info HOW DO THESE SYSTEMS DIFFER? o Primarily differ in capacity for storage o Span How much information each system can hold o Duration For how much time it can hold that information Storage Encoding Retrieval Stage 1 Stage 3 Stage 2 SENSORY MEMORY Have you ever had this experience? I can’t believe the Giants lost that game. I can’t believe Sandoval missed that catch. They can’t play him in the next game, they have to bench him. I don’t care if he has a cute nickname. I wonder if I should put another picture of my cats in tomorrow’s lecture slide. Is it really going to be another 9 months until the new season of “Mad Men?” I want pie. Are you listening to me? Of course! He has a cute nickname. Kung Foo Panda. Woo! ! SENSORY MEMORY Brief storage of perceptual information Closely tied to sensory systems Happens automatically Preattention Information in sensory memory rapidly decays Can hold up to 12 units (span) TYPES OF SENSORY MEMORY One for each sense! Iconic memories Lasts approx. 1 second (duration) Echoic memories Lasts up to 5-10 seconds (duration) How I could repeat my fiancé's last sentence Etc. But what happens to information we choose to pay attention to? FROM SENSORY MEMORY TO…. Encoding Retrieval Sensory info
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10/20/10 3 SHORT-TERM (WORKING) MEMORY Memory for what we are currently thinking about, attending to, or processing actively Called “working” because it is what we are working on at the moment HOW SHORT IS SHORT-TERM MEMORY? In duration: Approximately 20 seconds In span: 7+/- 2 units The Magic Number CAN WE EXPAND SHORT-TERM MEMORY? In duration? Yes, through rehearsal Repeating the information, either mentally or aloud Maintenance rehearsal “Maintenance rehearsal is just repeating the stimuli in its original form.” Elaborative rehearsal “The word ‘elaborate’ means ‘to add details to or expand.’ That is what you are doing with elaborative rehearsal— adding details. It is also more elaborate than maintenance rehearsal, which is just like maintaining the information exactly as it is.” CAN WE EXPAND SHORT-TERM MEMORY?
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Lecture9-Memory6 - 10/20/10 LECTURE OUTLINE CHAPTER 7:...

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