GENERAL+PSYCHOLOGY+STUDY+TIPS

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Unformatted text preview: GENERAL
PSYCHOLOGY
STUDY
TIPS
&
PRACTICE
QUESTIONS
 
 In
preparation
for
our
first
midterm
on
October
26th
I
wanted
to
address
some
frequently
 asked
questions
about
how
to
study
for
the
exam,
and
give
you
a
sample
of
the
types
of
test
 questions
I
generally
ask.

These
study
tips
will
be
helpful
for
both
midterms
and
the
final,
so
 please
hold
on
to
this
handout.
Feel
free
to
visit
either
myself
or
Jonni
during
office
hours,
and
 continue
to
use
the
smartsite
chatroom/forums,
if
you
have
any
questions
about
how
to
 prepare
for
the
exams!
 
 This
handout
does
not
provide
a
specific
list
of
topics
to
review
for
the
exam,
because
ANY
 topic
covered
in
either
lecture
or
the
textbook
is
technically
fair
game.
 
 Names
and
dates:
 In
general
I
do
not
expect
you
to
memorize
the
large
number
of
names/dates
included
in
 your
textbook.

For
example,
many
study
authors
are
cited
as
the
book
describes
research
 findings.

On
page
155
the
book
notes,
“Some
perceptions
rely
more
heavily
on
bottom‐up
 processing
(Koch,
1993),
others
on
top‐down
processing
(McClelland
&
Plaut,
1993)”
 (Lillienfeld,
Lynn,
Namy
&
Woolf,
2009).

I
DO
NOT
expect
you
to
know
the
names
of
Koch,
 McClelland
or
Plaut,
or
when
their
research
was
conducted.
 
 The
names
I
will
expect
you
to
know
for
the
exams
are
those
that
we
talk
about
in
some
 detail
in
class.

Individuals
like
John
Watson,
B.F.
Skinner
and
Ivan
Pavlov
(all
of
whom
will
 be
covered
during
our
Learning
lectures),
or
John
Bowlby
and
Sigmund
Freud
(who
will
be
 covered
in
the
second
half
of
the
class),
will
be
profiled,
not
only
for
a
single
study
that
 provides
some
evidence
in
support
of
a
course
concept,
but
for
the
greater
body
of
their
 work
and
the
theories
they
contributed
to
the
field
of
Psychology.

There
will
also
be
a
 couple
of
studies
we
will
discuss
in
great
detail
that
are
so
famous,
and
so
strongly
 associated
with
the
study
author
that
I
would
expect
you
to
be
able
to
identify
them
on
an
 exam,
but
I
will
always
provide
multiple
cues
as
to
which
study
I
am
referring
to
(for
 example,
“In
Milgram’s
study
of
obedience…”).

We
have
not
really
come
across
any
of
these
 yet,
but
it
will
be
pretty
clear
when
we
get
to
one.

You
would
also
be
expected
to
know
 individuals
such
as
Phineas
Gage
or
Clever
Hans
whom
we
spent
a
lot
of
time
discussing
as
 important
case
studies.

 
 I
will
not
test
you
on
specific
dates,
but
understanding
the
historical
sequence
of
certain
 theories
will
be
important.

Knowing
that
Behaviorism
emerged
after
the
rise
of
eugenics,
 or
that
Attachment
Theory
emerged
after
Behaviorism
is
important
in
understanding
the
 development
of
these
theories
for
reasons
that
will
become
clear
in
lecture.
 
 Anatomy:
 As
I
am
sure
you
have
noticed,
this
first
portion
of
the
class
has
included
A
LOT
of
 discussions
of
anatomy—the
brain/neurons,
the
eye,
the
ear.

When
studying
this
 information
for
the
exam
I
want
you
to
focus
on
functional
anatomy—in
other
words,
how
 the
various
structures
we
have
discussed
work,
and
what
role
they
play
in
our
 psychological
experience.

I
will
NOT
present
you
with
a
picture
of
the
brain
and
ask
you
 
 1
 label
all
the
subcortical
structures,
but
I
will
expect
you
to
know
what
functions
those
 subcortical
structures
serve.

In
some
cases,
understanding
function
means
understanding
 where
a
part
is
located—for
example,
you
need
to
know
the
iris
surrounds
the
pupil
in
the
 eye
in
order
to
appreciate
that
the
iris
is
responsible
for
controlling
dilation
of
the
pupil.

 Likewise,
it
is
important
to
recognize
that
the
axon
comes
at
the
end
of
a
single
neuron,
in
 order
to
understand
that
it
is
from
the
end
of
the
axon
that
neurotransmitters
are
released
 in
order
to
communicate
with
other
neurons.
 
 How
to
prioritize
your
studying:
 Between
the
textbook
readings
and
lecture
notes,
I
know
it
can
seem
like
there
is
an
 overwhelming
amount
of
information
you
need
to
be
responsible
for.

And
while
 technically
any
material
covered
in
lecture
or
assigned
readings
is
fair
game
for
an
exam
 question,
there
are
certain
ways
you
can
prioritize
your
studying
that
should
help
the
 material
feel
more
manageable.
 

 Focus
on:
 1. Material
covered
by
BOTH
lecture
and
the
textbook.

If
the
information
is
 important
enough
to
be
covered
twice,
it
is
probably
important
enough
to
be
 covered
on
the
exam.
 2. Information
covered
exclusively
in
lecture/
Reading
highlighted
on
a
“Read
All
 About
It”
slide.

Since
the
person
giving
the
lectures
is
the
same
person
 writing
the
exams
(me!),
material
that
I
think
is
interesting/important
 enough
to
add
to
lectures
will
also
be
important
to
review
for
the
exam.

Any
 textbook
pages
mentioned
on
a
“Read
All
About
It”
slide
are
guaranteed
to
 generate
at
least
one
exam
question,
so
be
sure
to
study
those
pages
 particularly
carefully.
 3. Material
covered
exclusively
in
the
textbook.

Technically
all
material
covered
 by
the
textbook
could
be
included
on
the
exam,
but
I
would
give
this
material
 lowest
priority
when
it
comes
time
to
study.
 
 General
studying
tips:
 1. Be
an
active
studier!
The
more
active
you
can
be
in
reviewing
the
material,
the
more
 you
will
retain.

This
could
mean
retyping/rephrasing
your
notes
rather
than
just
 rereading
them,
making
an
outline
of
textbook
material
rather
than
just
highlighting
 as
you
read,
or
challenging
yourself
to
think
of
examples
to
illustrate
course
 concepts
(e.g.
design
an
experimental
study,
including
an
independent
variable,
 dependent
variable,
etc.).

And
don’t
be
afraid
to
try
different
strategies—it
can
 sometimes
take
awhile
to
figure
out
how
YOU
study
most
efficiently
(especially
 since
it
may
be
a
very
different
style
than
your
friends
or
classmates).
This
may
be
 particularly
true
if
this
is
one
of
your
first
college
courses.
 2. Focus
on
understanding
the
bigger
picture.

To
give
you
an
example,
we
dedicated
the
 majority
of
one
lecture
to
discussing
how
neurons
work,
and
in
doing
so
we
 introduced
a
lot
of
terminology
(axon,
dendrite,
myelin,
etc.).

Rather
than
trying
to
 memorize
each
of
these
terms
individually,
think
about
how
they
all
work
together
 to
explain
the
big
picture
of
an
action
potential.

This
will
leave
you
better
prepared
 to
answer
any
of
many
potential
exam
questions
that
could
come
from
that
lecture.
 
 2
 
 Practice
questions
(answers
at
bottom
of
page
4):
 
 1. I
develop
a
new
measure
of
intelligence
that
determines
IQ
by
assessing
how
many
 different
breeds
of
cats
an
individual
can
identify.
I
then
give
this
test
to
a
single
 group
of
participants
several
times
over
the
course
of
a
year,
and
each
time
their
 scores
remain
roughly
the
same.

This
indicates
I
have
developed
a
measure
that
is
 high
in
 a. interrater
reliability.
 b. test‐retest
reliability.
 c. validity.
 d. operationalization.
 
 2. Neurons
that
send
messages
to
other
neurons
are
called
 a. interneurons.
 b. efferent
neurons.
 c. sensory
neurons.
 d. motor
neurons.
 
 3. Teach
someone
else
the
material.

The
best
way
to
ensure
that
you
know
the
material
 well
is
make
sure
that
you
can
explain
it
to
someone
else.

So
form
study
groups,
 take
advantage
of
the
kindness
of
your
roommate/friend/boyfriend/girlfriend/cat,
 or
even
just
talk
to
yourself!
Take
turns
“regiving”
various
lectures
or
just
talking
 through
tricky
concepts.

Studying
with
classmates
can
be
particularly
useful,
 because
it
will
give
you
the
opportunity
to
double
check
each
other’s
work
and
make
 sure
you
all
understood
the
material
in
the
same
(correct)
way.

Feel
free
to
use
the
 smartsite
chatroom
to
either
coordinate
study
sessions,
or
to
just
talk
amongst
 yourselves.
 3. Left‐brained
people
are
more
____________
than
right‐brained
people.
 a. logical
 b. creative
 c. athletic
 d. None
of
the
above.
The
idea
of
being
“left‐brained”
versus
“right‐brained”
is
a
 myth.
 
 4. Which
of
the
following
statements
about
our
sense
of
hearing
is
TRUE?*
 a. Teenagers
can
hear
higher
pitches
than
older
individuals.
 b. Auditory
information
is
sent
from
the
ears
to
the
occipital
lobe
of
the
brain.
 c. Transduction
of
auditory
information
takes
place
in
the
middle
ear.
 d. All
of
the
above
are
true.
 
 5. An
administrator
believes
that
the
placement
of
motivational
posters
on
the
walls
of
 classrooms
in
academic
buildings
will
lead
to
increased
test
performance
at
her
 school.

To
test
her
theory,
she
randomly
assigns
certain
classrooms
within
the
 Psychology
Department
to
have
the
posters
while
others
do
not.
At
the
end
of
the
 quarter,
she
compares
final
exam
scores
for
Psychology
students
who
were
in
a
 
 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 *This
material
will
be
covered
in
Tuesday’s
lecture
 Answers
to
practice
questions:
1(b),
2(a),
3(d),
4(a),
5(d)
 classroom
with
a
motivational
poster,
and
Psychology
students
who
took
their
 classes
in
rooms
without
posters.

What
is
the
independent
variable
in
this
study?
 
 a. Academic
department
 b. Gender
of
the
student

 c. Final
exam
scores
 d. Classroom
posters
 
 4
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2010 for the course PSC PSC 001 taught by Professor Paoli during the Fall '09 term at UC Davis.

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