RDGFundamentalstxt - brady_c01_001-033hr 6/28/07 2:45 PM...

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FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 1.1 Chemistry is important for anyone studying the sciences 1.2 The scientific method helps us build models of nature 1.3 Matter is composed of elements, compounds, and mixtures 1.4 Properties of matter can be classified in different ways 1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties 1.6 Measurements always contain some uncertainty 1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method 1.8 Density is a useful intensive property 1 CHAPTER OUTLINE Mike Peterson #54 of the Jacksonville Jaguars sacks Houston quarterback David Carr #8. Athletes such as these find their sports safer than ever before thanks to high tech materials made possible through chemical research. Most of the materials used in their uniforms, helmets, and protective pads do not occur naturally in our world and would not exist without discoveries made by observant chemists. The fruits of chemical science touch all our lives every day in ways most of us rarely think of. (Lisa Blumenfeld/ Getty Images/NewsCom.) brady_c01_001-033hr 6/28/07 2:45 PM Page 1
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2 Chemistry is a science that has impacted every aspect of our lives. We have come to take for granted so many of the materials, discovered by chemists, that make us comfortable, provide for our entertainment, and ensure that the foods we place on our tables are fresh and wholesome. Most of the med- icines to cure disease and relieve pain, and nearly all of the objects used by doctors in hospitals, would not exist if chemists had not synthesized the materials from which they are made. As we guide you through the study of chem- istry, we will provide numerous examples of how this subject relates to the world in which we live. Our aim is to give you an appreciation of the significant role that chemistry plays in modern society. This chapter has three principal goals. The first is to provide you with an appreciation of the central role that chemistry plays among the sciences. The second is to have you understand the way scientists approach the study of nature and how they construct mental pictures of the microscopic world to explain the results of experimental observations. And third, we will begin to discuss the principal substances that serve as building blocks for all the materials we encounter in our daily lives. If you’ve had a prior course in chemistry, perhaps in high school, you’re likely to be familiar with many of the topics that we cover in this chapter. Nevertheless, it is important to be sure you have a mastery of these subjects, because if you don’t start this course with a firm understanding of the basics, you may find yourself in trouble later on. In our discussions, we do not assume that you have had a prior course in chemistry. However, we do urge you to study this chapter thoroughly, because the concepts developed here will be used in later chapters.
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RDGFundamentalstxt - brady_c01_001-033hr 6/28/07 2:45 PM...

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