R-intro - An Introduction to R Notes on R A Programming...

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Unformatted text preview: An Introduction to R Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics Version 2.12.0 (2010-10-15) W. N. Venables, D. M. Smith and the R Development Core Team Copyright c 1990 W. N. Venables Copyright c 1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. Smith Copyright c 1997 R. Gentleman & R. Ihaka Copyright c 1997, 1998 M. Maechler Copyright c 1997– R Core Development Team Copyright c 1999–2010 R Development Core Team Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copy- right notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the condi- tions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Development Core Team. ISBN 3-900051-12-7 i Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Introduction and preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1 The R environment ................................................................ 2 1.2 Related software and documentation ............................................... 2 1.3 R and statistics .................................................................... 2 1.4 R and the window system ......................................................... 3 1.5 Using R interactively .............................................................. 3 1.6 An introductory session ............................................................ 4 1.7 Getting help with functions and features ........................................... 4 1.8 R commands, case sensitivity, etc. ................................................. 4 1.9 Recall and correction of previous commands ....................................... 5 1.10 Executing commands from or diverting output to a file ............................ 5 1.11 Data permanency and removing objects ........................................... 5 2 Simple manipulations; numbers and vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1 Vectors and assignment ............................................................ 7 2.2 Vector arithmetic .................................................................. 7 2.3 Generating regular sequences ...................................................... 8 2.4 Logical vectors .................................................................... 9 2.5 Missing values ..................................................................... 9 2.6 Character vectors ................................................................ 10 2.7 Index vectors; selecting and modifying subsets of a data set2....
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R-intro - An Introduction to R Notes on R A Programming...

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