Chapter+5+(Part+2) - Personality notes Chapt 5 110-122...

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Personality notes Chapt 5 110-122 Taken collectively, the findings support the view that genetic factors play a significant role in personality- both in traits measured by the big 5, as well as if… then… behavioral signatures. Plomin and colleagues, critically reviewing twin studies of personality based on self reports, point out certain method problems in these studies that may systematically overestimate the role of genetics. These biases however- can be corrected. “the true heritability estimate for self-reported personality is closer to the adoption study estimate of 20% than to the twin study estimate of 40%” (Plomin 1990). Family members resemble each other in personality largely because of genetic influences, and that the environment seems to make members of a family different. Based on the following: Twins reared apart are only somewhat less similar in personality than twins who grew up in the same family. In studies of adoptive families that have >1 adopted child the genetically unrelated children show little similarity in personality even though they had the same Shared environment - raised in same family. Shared/family environment - in twin studies was treated as if families treat all siblings the same. But its hard to say this is the case for the normal family. More realistic is the view below. Nonshared/unique environment - prenatal development, birth order, biological events (illness/nutrition), psychological events-interpersonal relationships (parents/peers/romantic). Earlier born children are larger, more powerful, and more privileged than later born children and that, in turn may affect their personality development. Every newborn is born into a slightly different family psychologically and structurally. But children correctly believe that their parents do treat them differently (based on observation results). Could be reason- children growing up in same family lead remarkably separate lives. Children growing up in “same” family experience it differently so that psychologically it is not the same. TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION Differential parental treatment of siblings may be due to genetically influenced differences between the siblings, including their personality (ex. 2 nd child misbehave/hard to deal with compared to first child, parents will treat 2 nd child differently in manners regarding punishment etc.) Nonshared environmental influence= far outside family. Environmental effects on personality are specific
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2010 for the course PSYCH V89.-0030- taught by Professor Susan during the Fall '09 term at NYU.

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Chapter+5+(Part+2) - Personality notes Chapt 5 110-122...

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