Chapter+10 - Behavioral Conceptions Introduction Focus on...

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Behavioral Conceptions Introduction Focus on the level of learning through conditioning Began with the study of learning and performance in lower animals in highly controlled lab situations Psychologists at this level studied the learning mechanusms though which certain events “stimuli” become associated with particular behaviors or responses The Behavioral Approach to Psychodynamics: Dollard and Miller Psychodynamic behavior theory o the major effort to integrate some of the fundamental ideas of Freudian psychodynamic theory with the concepts. Language and methods of experimental lab research on behavior learning Neurotic Conflict: The Core For Freud, neurotic conflict involves a clash between id impulses seeking expression and internalized inhibitions that censor and restrain the expression of those impulses in accord with the culture’s taboos Donald and Miller state the same basic idea in the language of learning In their view, neurosis, strong fear (anxiety) is a learned drive that motivates a conflict concerning “goal responses” for other strong drives, such as sex or aggression—the impulses that also were basic for Freud When the neurotic person or even the young child begins to approach goals that might reduce such drives as sex or aggression, strong fear is elicited in him or her. The neurotic person is stimulated by the frustrated drives and by the fear that they evoke (simultaneously). The high drive state connected with this conflict produces “misery” and interferes with clear thinking, discrimination, and effective problem solving. The “symptoms” shown arise from the buildup of the drives and of the fear that inhibits their release. Recasting Conflict in Learning Terms The study of approach-avoidance tendencies has been a big topic since Freud Because these conflicts create anxiety, the individual, according to Freud, engages in massive unconscious efforts to reduce it which in turn can produce all sorts of difficulties
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Hypothesized approach avoidance tendencies and anyalyzed them in experiments with animals: in such conflicts, the organism, at least momentarily, is torn between two desirable goals. Conflict is the center to personality dynamics in this model as in Freuds…but unlike Freud, who developed his ideas about conflict from inferences regarding id-ego-superego conflicts, Donald and Miller tested their ideas in controlled experiments with rats. In one study, hungry rats learned how to run down n alley to get food at a distinctive point in the maze To generate ambivalence. The rats were given a quick electric chock while they were eating. TO test the resulting conflict between approach to the food and avoidance of the shock, the rats were later placed again at the start of the alley. The hungry rat started toward the food but halted and hesitated before reaching it. Applied the concepts of goal gradients to analyze these conflicts.
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Chapter+10 - Behavioral Conceptions Introduction Focus on...

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