Chapter+14+-+Pgs.+349+to+366+ - Chapter 14: Pgs. 349 to 366...

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Chapter 14: Pgs. 349 to 366 DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL COGNITIVE LEVEL Historical Roots: Social cognitive approach to personality began in the late 1960s - conceived by many psychologists who were frustrated by limitations of early theories Personality was divided into 3 fields: 1) Freudians – guarded Freud’s original work from anyone who wanted to revise or criticize it 2) Students of Individual Differences – searching for broad personality trait dimensions 3) Radical behaviorialists – concerned with conditioning and relations between stimuli and responses – nothing about mental activities/stimuli – did not deal with things that cannot be directly or simply measured 3 camps did not talk to each other Carl Rogers and George Kelly are one example of a protest movement to the aforementioned state of affairs. - Focused on the concepts and constructs of individual perceived by the person. George Kelly bridged Phenomenological-Humanistic and Social Cognitive Levels of analysis Linking Cognition and Social Behavior: Traditional behavioral approaches asserted stimuli control behavior BUT in truth the perceivers’ mental representations and cognitive transformations of the stimuli can determine/reverse impact. - Kelly argued this but with little empirical data but research later showed this fact Research example: - preschool children who were made to sit alone in a chair in return for a marshmallow or pretzel. If they imagined the marshmallow or pretzel as a cloud or a log, it was easier for them to stay the entire time. THEREFORE: the children’s mental process is more of a determinant than external stimulus Example proves George Kelly and Carl Rogers are right The Cognitive Revolution Beginning of 1950s: cognitive revolution Revolt against strict behaviorism: only focused on observable stimuli, discussion of mental processes are unscientific because they were not measurable Cognitive revolution Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology developed rapidly in 1970s and 1980s focused on cognitive processes. Showed that mental processes such as memory, knowledge, and thinking can provide a scientific account of mental activity which is overtly linked to behavior Cognitive psychology social cognitive psychology ALBERT BANDURA: SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY One of roots of social cognitive theories developed in 1960s – ALBERT BANDURA Bandura realizes that classical and operant condition are important types of learning but people also learn cognitively by observing others, not merely by experiencing rewards for what they do themselves. A lot of social learning occurs through observations without any direct reinforcement administered to learner Learning Through Observation (Modeling)
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Also known as observational learning – “learning that occurs without the learner’s receiving direct external reinforcement. Such learning occurs even without the person’s ever performing the learned response at all.” Much human learning is from observing interpersonal relations rather than direct reinforcement of
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2010 for the course PSYCH V89.-0030- taught by Professor Susan during the Fall '09 term at NYU.

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Chapter+14+-+Pgs.+349+to+366+ - Chapter 14: Pgs. 349 to 366...

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