Chapter+Summaries! - 6:57:00 PM Chapter Summaries Okay kids...

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Chapter Summaries! Okay kids here are the textbook readings. Hopefully I will be sent more for Chap. 6 and 15 to pass on to you. For now, this is it! Enjoy! Chapter 6 (Part 2 of 2) Brain Asymmetry and Personality Differences People differ consistently in the degree to which the right versus the left sides of their brains are activated, and that difference is brain asymmetry To study such differences, the brain’s electrical activity is assessed but EEG Involves two neurological systems in the brain the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral activation system The BIS causes individuals to withdraw from undesirable or punishable stimuli and inhibits behavior The BAS directs individuals towards desirable goals and incentives, activating approach behavior The degree of activity in these two systems is linked to individual differences at the broad dispositional trait level, as assessed by the Big Five model of personality BIS has more activation in introverts, BAS more activation in extroverts Individuals who are dominantly left side active in their brains experience positive, pleasant emotions Right side dominated are more ready to respond with negative emotional reactions and distress when they face unpleasant or threatening events Sensation Seeking: This trait drives people to feel sensationsm sucha s an adrenaline rush Sensation Seeking Scale” taps into four different aspects: Thrill and Adventure seeking, Disinhibition, Boredom Susceptibility This scale helps predict how people cope with situations in which there is a lack of stimulation This personality characteristic may arise from differences in physiological differences in physical arousal, sych as cortical activity in reaction to novel and familiar stimuli Sensation seeking may also be linked to impulsiveness Biological Assesment: To study the brain tests and equipment such as fMRI is used. fMRI measures the magnetic fields created by the functioning nerve cells in the brain and shows these images on a screen Second procedure is PET, creates images and maps of brain functiomig by assessing metabolic activity in different areas of the brian The Amygdala and Personality: A particularly important area in the brain for personality is the amygdala, the central nucleus of this brain structure reacts almost instantly to signals that warn of danger, immediately sending out behavioral, physiological, and endocrine responses In Kagan’s work with shy, inhibited children, researchers examined how the children’s inhibited behavior is related to biological processes, specifically to the activation of the amygdala. Infants who were observed at 2years of age in the lab were tested again at 22. That follow up used an MRI session while participants looked at either familiar or unfamiliar faces Temperamental differences in inhibition and shyness are related to an overreactive amygdala when inhibited people are faced with novelty in the form of unfamiliar faces >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> Chapter 8: Psychodynamic Processes: Anxiety and the Unconscious 5/2/2010 6:57:00 PM
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