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Unformatted text preview: March 3rd Social Cognition
Traits in belly, cognitive thoughts in the mind. - Cues are mediated by interpretations that the particular individual is using to interpret these stimulus cues. - Not just cues themselves, it’s also the interpretation, cognitive mediated. Externally deﬁned objective cues. “Cognitive Misers” - Shelley Taylor. - People just trying to engage in bare minimum of life so they can navigate through the day. - People often make the “Fundamental Attribution Error” (Lee Ross) - When you are observing somebody engaging in behavior, you will have the tendency to label the behavior. - “Tendency to over-value dispositional or personality-based explanations for the observed behaviors of others while under-valuing situational explanations for those behaviors.” - Example: If you are engaging in dangerous behavior, person assumes you have that “dangerous” streak. Not give much weight to situational forces. - Spontaneous Trait Inferences (Jim Uleman) same thing as Fundamental Attribution Error, but Uleman says that it is occurring relatively automatically. Less of an opportunity to see the person because you have a bias - you haven’t seen them in every possible situation, only the ones you frequent. When someone says... “I really like this person (JOE) because they’re sweet and artistic and kind”, the path of least resistance (cognitive miser) is to assume these traits are the truth about the person described. But really you’ve learned more about the perceiver than about Joe. You’ll ﬁnd that the person tends to describe others using the same traits as they did to describe Joe. If you had many people (perceivers) describing targets (Joe... and friends) you’ll ﬁnd one perceivers perceptions of all of the targets (Joe + friends) are going to be more related than all the perceivers perceptions of just Joe. March 3rd This is called Top Down Processing (driven by concepts you already hold, shoving them onto data) vs Bottom-up processing (driven by what is actually out there.) From those categories, you derive expectations of what’s going to happen next. If you think someone is aggressive, you expect them to act aggressively in the future. Expectancies - Biased Hypothesis Testing. Rather than looking for non-aggressive behavior that disconﬁrms hypothesis, trying to ﬁnd evidence to back up your claim. Attention on things you’re already looking for/searching. Self Fulﬁlling Prophecies. Assimilation vs Accommodation http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/assimacc.htm Concepts/Categories/Mental Representations - Trait (adjectives) “terms”/category - adjectives - Example: This chair is uncomfortable. Using adjective to describe thing (person) - “Stereotypes”/Labels - Nerd / Redneck / Business man - Socially shared ideas, even if you don’t believe in a certain stereotype, if you’ve grown up in the society it is there and can be triggered. - More noun like than an adjective. - Exemplar - n of one “Proper noun” / “Proper name” - Somebody like Joe (you may not know him yet, but he’s in memory bank) - My “neighbors” - Signiﬁcant other - Family, ﬁrst love, best friend/former best friend, mentor, old ﬂame - Stored away in memory When you encounter Situational Cues that have signiﬁcance to the mental representation in your head, the representation will be activated. March 3rd Brain is engaging in similarity calculation. To what extent is what I am viewing similar to something I already know, and the degree of similarity. Happening on transient basis. Activation is not about retrieving something intentionally from your memory bank. This is an automatic calculation that your mind is engaging in, and when that happens this representation is activated. Activation is not synonymous with conscious awareness. It’s deﬁned as a change in the readiness of that mental representation to be used. (Readied for use) What will be activated is what is brought into working memory. Relative readiness for use of particular knowledge structures in memory. Just because a mental representation has been readied for use, does not mean that you will apply it. Distinction between activation and application. ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2010 for the course PSYCH V89.-0030- taught by Professor Susan during the Fall '09 term at NYU.
- Fall '09