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Unformatted text preview: Depression continued April 7th 2010 Skiing accident ran into a tree and you broke your back and can no longer walk. Or you’re suddenly blind. A lot of these events - one doesn’t know how they would cope. You would think you would be depressed, BUT the conundrum is that many people are not responding to it it that way. A lot of people cope with tremendous resilience to events like that. Second reformulation of the model Helplessness Model Vulnerability by stress model 1. They expand the nature and number of the vulnerability factor they are able to identify 2. They make the claim that when you have a vulnerability factor and you encounter particular stressors, you are likely to become depressed but that descent into acquiring depression is what they call mediated by hopelessness. It is hopelessness that mediates the onset of depression. Statistical and theoretical question. Ultimately the hopelessness that causes depression. Mediation is another way of saying it “causes” ASQ - Attributional Style Questionnaire. What is it in that attributional style that is responsible for that vulnerability? Internal attribution for failures are in some respects less essential than they thought. It’s not so much that you have to make an internal attribution for your failure, you have to make a stable and global attribution. When you encounter a triggering cue (a stressful event or even a prime) that happens to match something that is stored in memory, then it will be triggered. Example: Death of a parent can serve as a vulnerability factor for depression. There are other factors... such as Intolerance of Ambiguity. They are all in the diathesis stress model. They are all Moderator Variables. There is no overall claim. Just because you have a vulnerability it doesn’t mean you’ll be depressed. Just because you have a stressor doesn’t mean you’ll be depressed. But if you have both... then it’s possible. Why do they become depressed? The mediating variable is the onset of hopelessness. In the end, the immediate onset cause is the onset of hopelessness which then predicts depression. Vulnerability factors can be: Depressive Attributional Style, Personality, Death of a parent early on, Tendency to over-generalize, Intolerance to ambiguity. The diathesis is the moderator; ie the is the vulnerability moderator. The thing that is the mediator is hopelessness. Vulnerability + Stressor --> Hopelessness --> Depression : Strong Claim Any type of change, EVEN when they are positive are stressful. Change itself is really stressful on the person, mental structures need to be reorganized. Violence goes up in the summer because it is more stressful - hotter, more crowded, etc. The higher the vulnerability factor, the lower the threshold for experiencing something stressful. (Person who has lost parent will see loss sooner than someone who hasn’t) What IS hopelessness? Beck is big on this. Rating of likelihood of certain events occurring. If you think the stressor will last forever and positive things won’t happen... buuuuut... All this is referring to is pessimism. Hope-less-ness means NO hope, not a shred, nada, zilch, none at all. NO HOPE, ahhh! Watch this video: http://www.metacafe.com/watch/729748/tickle_me_emo/ ;P What if I think there’s a 99% chance that he’ll leave me/die. I still have 1% hope. Or even with 75% you still have 30% hope. So pessimism is not really hopelessness, hopelessness is really a dichotomist issue. If you move from some hope to NO hope. When you are certain that nothing positive will happen then you give up - depressive predictive certainty. RUMINATION Pay attention to your negative internal states and keep asking why you are experiencing it and what does it imply? Is this going to get worse? Has it always been this way? Why me? Study where induced non-depressed people to ruminate over something in the way that depressed people would tend to do naturally and they began to sink into depression. What are BUFFERS that can reduce depression? Social Support in life. Not all people in your life are intimate and warm... it’s not have many “facebook friends” you have. How many people do you have in your life that you can share close intimate bonds with? Even if it’s just a few that is what’s needed. Not all relationships are created equally. (SIGH.) Even though you think the relationship is intimate it may not necessarily be supportive. If the person is bummed out about losing their job and you’re just like “dude play some tennis” that is going to make them feel like you’re not listening or you’re always trying to “ﬁx” things when really all they need is a supportive ear and a “hey babe i’ll love you anyways” type o’thing. People with depression hold particular beliefs that make them vulnerable to depression... Triad of Beliefs 1) Negative beliefs about self 2) Negative beliefs about world 3) Negative beliefs about future Each belief ends up introducing biases/distortions in how you’re responding to others/ the world around you. Beck claims that depressed people have self schemas that are particularly negatively biased. Inﬂuence how subsequent information is processed. But sometimes LATENT. But when these self-schemas are activated by a cue then the schema will be activated and you’ll be particularly likely to interpret things negatively. When the self-schema is activated, it causes you to have all kinds of automatic thoughts... automatic negative thoughts. BECK was originally trained as a psychoanalyst, but he’s the total opposite. In psychoanalysis, his patients were all free-analyzing and all of a sudden he had a clinical epiphany. He was like “OMG, things are happening!” The person says things like “And then I sat down and enjoyed the ﬁre” (while furrowing brows) Beck: “There are these strange cues people are giving off... HMMM” Beck: “These cues are just begging for me to ask, I know I’m not supposed to but I must” Beck: “ Patient, I’ve gotta ask...” <asks> Patient: “Well... when I was sitting by the ﬁre, what went through my mind was... irritating and sad and awful but I was just trying to relax” Beck: “AHA! Automatic thoughts are things that go through your mind rapidly. You are making broad statements about the world and what people are saying about you and they’re faster than the speed of light and are not coming out in free association because of communication rules... like If I begin a story/sentence I should conclude it, I shouldn’t digress” Patient: “Ummm... sure... yeah.” Beck now thinks of it in a way that is similar to the Diatheses Stress Model... Depressed people are distorting reality -- well, this has been brought into question. WE ARE ALL DISTORTING REALITY. Yes you, Wake up Neo. It’s just about who is distorting it more conveniently. The way depress-os tend to interpret reality is counter productive. Tendency to make SNAP JUDGMENTS about the future, oh snap! Yes to negative events, no to positive events... depressed people have a future event schema sitting in memory making predictions about the future with a certain automaticity that is like certainty. People who are not depressed, do not hold schemas for the future because they’re more like “to inﬁnity and beyond! it’s the unknown, woop woop!” ...
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- Fall '09