earth systems - bbbbbbbbbbbbb Portraying Earth...

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bbbbbbbbbbbbb1/29/08 Portraying Earth Obj.: -describes cracteristics of maps -describe various ways mpas portrayed Map: 2 dimensional representation of 3d distribution of selected phenomena Nature of maps Distance Direction Size Shape Why maps are bad o Map can’t show everything o Data can be wrong o No map is perfectly accurate 3 expressions of scale o Fractional scale 1 inch/ 1 mile o graphic scale can change size of map and scale stays the same o Verbal scale o 1 inch is one mile Map essentials o Title o Date o Legend o Scale o Direction o Location o Data Source o Projection type Globes o Advantages 3d shape o Disadvantages Clunky Map Projection: a way to represent a round globe on a flat paper
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Properties o Conformality : Shape right size is wrong o Equivalence: size is right shape is wrong Compromise projection: half way there on both Families of Projections o Cylindrical: Tangent at equator Mercator projection: used by early expolorer’s important for straight line navigation stretches thing all directions Loxodrome: curve on the surface of the sphere that crosses all meridians at the same angle o Going to china curve over north pole straight like between points in curve. Used for navigation o Plane projections One hemisphere view o Conic Projections -smal area maps o pseudocylindrical projection 2 straight lines o Interrupted projection Little disturbance on land Oceans cut up Isolines: line that joins points of equal value o Isohyet: precipitation map o Isothermic: temperature o Isopressure o Isogonic o Isolines are always closed and never touch and there is general interval between lines GPS o Satellite based o Commercial/private users o Military use Orthophoto maps o Multicolored o Distortion free o Aerial photographs Color and infrared film Microwave sensing: sub surface characteristics Geographic information systems 2/5/08
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Insulation and temperature Temp affects everything Black body radiation- max energy output Black absorbs radiation White repels it Gas molecules in atmosphere scatter light making sky blue Rayleigh scattering Mie scattering- larger particles see al wave lengths Transmission-light passes through a medium caontains heat Like in a car 2/8/08 Conduction Albedo-ability of an object to reflect radiation Land water contrasts o Lands heats and cools faster and to greater degree Specific heat of water Transmission (lower max temperature) Mobility (land is a poor conductor) Evaporative cooling Water has more potential for evaporation Mechanisms of heat transfer o Atmospheric circulation 75-80% horizontal heat circulation o Oceanic circulation Very slow o Gulf Stream West wind drift o West to east along Antarctic circle Temperature inversions o Surface inversion Raditiational Cold winter nights Advectional Horizontal inflow of cold air Cold air drainage
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