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Lecture18-2010 - Lecture 18 BIO361 Dr Robert Haltiwanger...

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Lecture 18, BIO361 1 Dr. Robert Haltiwanger Room 450/470 Life Science Building 2-7336 [email protected] Office Hours: 11-12 pm MWF Carbohydrates BIO361 Lecture 18 Fall 2010 Carbohydrates One of the four classes of biological macromolecules: protein, lipid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate. Exist as discrete entities or hybrid molecules: Discrete as: Monosaccharides (saccharide = sugar) Oligosaccahrides (2-10 monosaccharides) Polysaccharides (>10 monosaccharides) – Hybrid: • Glycoprotein • Glycolipid
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Lecture 18, BIO361 2 What is a monosaccharide? Polyhydroxy compound with aldehyde or ketone. General formula: (CH 2 O) n Simplest: Glyceraldehyde O 1 C-H H- 2 C-OH 3 CH 2 -OH D-Glyceraldehyde O 1 C-H HO- 2 C-H 3 CH 2 -OH L-Glyceraldehyde Page 221 Nomenclature: Aldose Hexose (-ose suffix: sugar) Figure 8-1 D-aldoses Epimer: isomer different at one position Man is 2-epimer of Glc Gal is 4-epimer of Glc
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Lecture 18, BIO361 3 Figure 8-2 D-ketoses Page 221 Aldopentoses (and larger) form stable rings in solution: (Fischer projection) Hemiacetal Hemiketal Ketohexoses (and larger) form stable rings in solution
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Lecture 18, BIO361 4 Page 222 Figure 8-4 Cyclic sugars exist in two isomeric forms: α - and ß-Anomers Conversion between α - and ß-anomers called mutarotation (64%) (36%) Anomeric carbons Figure 8-5 Rings are not planar, but buckled like cyclohexane Axial Equitorial Page 224 Sugar derivatives: Aldonic acid: oxidized aldehyde Uronic acids: oxidized primary alcohol
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Lecture 18, BIO361 5 Page 224 Alditols : reduced aldehyde Page 224 Naturally occurring deoxy-sugars: Page 225 Amino sugars: Figure 8-6 Sialic acids: 9-carbon amino sugars
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Lecture 18, BIO361 6 How to put two monosaccharides together?
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