Lecture18-2010

Lecture18-2010 - Lecture 18, BIO361 Dr. Robert Haltiwanger...

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Lecture 18, BIO361 1 Dr. Robert Haltiwanger Room 450/470 Life Science Building 2-7336 Rhaltiwanger@ms.cc.sunysb.edu OfFce Hours: 11-12 pm MW± Carbohydrates BIO361 Lecture 18 ±all 2010 Carbohydrates • One of the four classes of biological macromolecules: protein, lipid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate. • Exist as discrete entities or hybrid molecules: – Discrete as: • Monosaccharides (saccharide = sugar) • Oligosaccahrides (2-10 monosaccharides) • Polysaccharides (>10 monosaccharides) – Hybrid: • Glycoprotein • Glycolipid
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Lecture 18, BIO361 2 What is a monosaccharide? • Polyhydroxy compound with aldehyde or ketone. • General formula: (CH 2 O) n • Simplest: Glyceraldehyde O 1 C-H H- 2 C-OH 3 CH 2 -OH D-Glyceraldehyde O 1 C-H HO- 2 C-H 3 CH 2 -OH L-Glyceraldehyde Page 221 Nomenclature: Aldose Hexose (-ose sufFx: sugar) Figure 8-1 D-aldoses Epimer: isomer different at one position Man is 2-epimer of Glc Gal is 4-epimer of Glc
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Lecture 18, BIO361 3 Figure 8-2 D-ketoses Page 221 Aldopentoses (and larger) form stable rings in solution: (Fischer projection) Hemiacetal Hemiketal Ketohexoses (and larger) form stable rings in solution
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Lecture 18, BIO361 4 Page 222 Figure 8-4 Cyclic sugars exist in two isomeric forms: α - and ß-Anomers Conversion between α - and ß-anomers called mutarotation (64%) (36%) Anomeric carbons Figure 8-5 Rings are not planar, but buckled like cyclohexane Axial Equitorial Page 224 Sugar derivatives: Aldonic acid: oxidized aldehyde Uronic acids: oxidized primary alcohol
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Lecture 18, BIO361 5 Page 224 Alditols : reduced aldehyde Page 224 Naturally occurring deoxy-sugars: Page 225 Amino sugars: Figure 8-6 Sialic acids: 9-carbon amino sugars
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2010 for the course BIO 361 taught by Professor Lake during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lecture18-2010 - Lecture 18, BIO361 Dr. Robert Haltiwanger...

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