Alkanes - Distillation and Conformational Analysis

Alkanes - Distillation and Conformational Analysis -...

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Unformatted text preview: Fractional Distillation of Petroleum LP gas C1-C4 150 ºC gasoline C5-C10 naphtha C10-C12 kerosene C12-C16 diesel oil C16-C30 bottled fuel for household use car fuel organic molecules jet fuel bus and truck fuel small molecules - low boiling points - high volatility - low viscosity - easily ignited 175 ºC 200 ºC 300 ºC crude oil 400 ºC 370 ºC 400 ºC fuel oil C30-C100 fuel for ships and power plants residue C100-C300 motor oil, tar, and asphalt large molecules - high boiling points - low volatility - high viscosity - not easily ignited Chem 112A Distillation in the Laboratory thermometer distillation head round bottom ask water out cold water in condenser oil bath vacuum adapter receiving ask magnetic stirring/ heating plate vacuum or nitrogen distillation of organic liquids: - separates compounds by boiling points - best for 1 g to 500 g of liquid - can be under vacuum or nitrogen - receiving asks are changed when needed - never heat a closed system! - never heat with a Bunsen burner! Chem 112A Conformational Analysis of Ethane staggered bond rotation eclipsed eclipsed conformations HH H H H H HH H H HH H H HH potential energy H H H H H H H H 2.9 kcal mol H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H staggered conformations 120º 180º angle of rotation 240º 0º 60º 300º 360º Chem 112A Conformational Analysis of Butane eclipsed H3C CH 3 H H eclipsed H3C CH 3 H H eclipsed H3C H H H 4.9 kcal mol 3.3 kcal mol 0.7 kcal/mol CH3 H H H CH3 H H H CH3 H H eclipsed H3C H H 3C H H H H H potential energy H CH3 H H 5.6 kcal mol CH3 H 3C H H H H gauche 0º 60º 120º anti CH3 gauche 240º 300º 360º Chem 112A 180º angle of rotation ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2010 for the course LECTURE 1 taught by Professor Yildiz during the Fall '10 term at Berkeley.

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