NMR Lecture 2 - The NMR Spectrometer The NMR Signal 0 H0 2...

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The NMR Spectrometer
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The NMR Signal 0 0 2 H 0 = Resonance frequency = Larmor frequency = Gyromagnetic ratio (depends on type of nucleus) H 0 = External magnetic field strength
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The Origin of Chemical Shift eff H 2 0
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Secondary magnetic effects can enhance the applied field, thus increasing 0 for alkenyl, aromatic, and carbonyl nuclei:
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Chapter 9 5 Chemical Shift Equivalent and Nonequivalent Protons
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Topicity and Magnetic Equivalence Homotopic protons are related by a rotational axis ( C n ): Enantiotopic protons are related only by a reflection plane ( σ ). Diastereotopic protons are not related by either function. Test: The same compound is produced by replacing either proton with a D atom: Ph Ph H a D Ph Ph D H b Equivalent structures Equivalent structure Ph OH H a H b Ph OH H b H a Reflect through ex) Equivalent structure Ph OH H a D Ph OH D H b Not equivalent structures (these are enantiomers) ( R ) ( S ) Ph H a H b Ph HO Me ex) Ph H a D Ph HO Me Ph
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NMR Lecture 2 - The NMR Spectrometer The NMR Signal 0 H0 2...

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