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4_Igneous rocks - LECTURE 4 IGNEOUS ROCKS What is a rock...

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LECTURE 4 IGNEOUS ROCKS What is a rock? Solid material composed of minerals glass organic matter pre-existing rocks THE ROCK CYCLE Igneous rocks rocks formed from molten material called magma or lava OR deposits/debris of volcanic eruptions Magma Molten rock composed of varying amounts of Liquid Silicate (sometimes carbonate or sulfide) Ions of K, Na, Fe, Ca, Mg, Al Solid Minerals Rock fragments Dissolved gas H 2 O, CO 2 , SO 2 Temperature: 600-1200 o C Classification (chem’l composition) Felsic, Silicic or acidic - >63% SiO 2 1
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Intermediate - 52-63% SiO 2 Mafic or basic- 45-52% SiO 2 Ultramafic or ultrabasic - <45% SiO 2 Viscosity - property to resist flow Effects of different factors -↑ temperature, viscosity -↑ SiO 2 , viscosity -↑ dissolved H 2 O, viscosity Density heavier oceanic crust à mafic rocks lighter continental crust à felsic rocks Summary of properties: ultramafic mafic intermediate
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