12_Earthquakes

12_Earthquakes - Lecture 12 Earthquake Earthquake -...

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Lecture 12 Earthquake Earthquake - slippage along a fault Fault - crack in Earth where slip occurs Earthquake focus (hypocenter) - fault slip location (epicenter – the geographical location of an area directly above the focus) fault scarp - cliff from vertical slip on fault aftershocks small earthquakes that follow an initial earthquake in same vicinity foreshocks small earthquakes that sometimes precede a large one by few days - 95% of energy from earthquakes from thin zones (plate edges) - Some are quite deep (subduction zones) The Earthquake Source Elastic Rebound Theory [H. H. Reid,1911] Tectonic stresses in some region of the Earth have accumulated to the point of exceeding the strength of the material, leading rapidly to fracture Solid state Phase changes for Deep Earthquakes Olivine transforms to a denser spinel structure Transformational faulting ORIGIN The Elastic Rebound Theory - proposed by H.F. Reid - suggests that rocks are being stretched and strained as they are subjected to deformation. Elastic energy is slowly being stored and
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12_Earthquakes - Lecture 12 Earthquake Earthquake -...

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