Faults_Folding_Deformation

Faults_Folding_Deformation - Deformation of Rocks Folds and...

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1 Deformation of Rocks Deformation of Rocks Folds and faults are geologic structures caused by deformation. Structural geology is the study of the deformation of rocks and its effects. Fig. 11.1 Orientation of Deformed Rocks Orientation of Deformed Rocks We need some way to describe the distribution of geologic structures. So we use the terms strike and dip. Strike Strike: compass direction of a rock layer as it intersects with a horizontal surface. Dip Dip: acute angle between the rock layer and the horizontal surface, measured perpendicular to strike. Fig. 11.3 Fig. 11.4 Strike and Dip on a Rooftop
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2 Strike and Dip in a Rock Structure Fig. 11.4 Fig. 11.5 Stress: Stress: force per unit area force per unit area Types of directed stresses include: • compression compression extension extension shear shear Fig. Story 11.6 Compression Compression Action of oppositely directed forces acting towards each other at the same time Tension Tension Action of coinciding and oppositely directed forces acting away from each other
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Shear Shear Action of coinciding and oppositely directed forces acting parallel to each other across a surface Fig. 11.8 Strength Strength ability of an object to resist deformation compressive or tensile Fig. 11.7 Strain Strain Any change in original shape or size of an object in response to stress acting on the object Fig. 11.1 Types of Deformation Types of Deformation elastic elastic ductile (plastic) ductile (plastic) brittle (rupture) brittle (rupture) Elastic Deformation
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Faults_Folding_Deformation - Deformation of Rocks Folds and...

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