GeologyIntroductionNotes

GeologyIntroductionNotes - What is Geology? Geology is the...

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What is Geology? Geology is the science that examines the Earth, its form and composition, and the changes that it has undergone and is undergoing. It is the key to finding new sources of energy-producing materials, additional reserves of mineral resources, and hidden quantities of ground water. http://geology.about.com/od/nutshells/a/whatisgeology.htm
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Geology as a Discipline 1. Relevance of time 2. Issue of scale 3. Complexity of replicating natural systems and phenomena in the laboratory
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Main Branches of Geology Physical Geology examines the materials of the Earth and seeks to understand the processes and forces acting beneath and upon its surface Historical Geology deals with the origin of the Earth and its development through time. Usually involves the study of fossils and their sequence in rock beds strives to establish an orderly chronological arrangement of the multitude of physical and biological changes that have occurred in the geologic past
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Physical Geology Volcanology, Seismology Environmental Geology, Engineering Geology Mining Geology, Petroleum Geology Mineralogy, Petrography Geomorphology Geophysics, Geochemistry, Planetary Geology
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Historical Geology Paleontology Stratigraphy Geochronology
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Basic Concepts in the History of Geology Catastrophism Uniformitarianism
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Catastrophism proposed by Baron Georges Cuvier advocates the idea that sudden, worldwide catastrophes are the agents of change that alter the physical features of the Earth over time and that the latter remains unchanged in between these periods of upheavals widely accepted by theologians in the early 1800s due to similarity with Biblical events such as Noah’s Flood the Earth’s landscapes were shaped by catastrophic events of a short-term nature; earth is relatively young, ~6000 years old!
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Uniformitarianism proposed by James Hutton in his book “Theory of the Earth” (The Father of Modern Geology) the physical, chemical, and biological processes that have shaped the Earth in the geologic past are essentially the same as those operating today advocates the idea that the Earth is continuously modified by geologic processes that have always operated throughout time (at different rates), and that by studying them we can understand how the Earth has evolved through time “THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST”
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Relevance to Daily Life
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Relevance to Daily Life
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Geology in the Society Natural disaster mitigation Environmental impact assessment Utilization of natural resources
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The formation of the Earth was an offshoot of the formation of the Universe Formation of the Universe: Big Bang Theory Formation of the Solar System: Nebular Hypothesis
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Big Bang Theory contends that the Universe originated from a cosmic explosion (origin unknown) that hurled
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2010 for the course LIR 30 taught by Professor Thornley,k during the Spring '08 term at Santa Rosa.

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GeologyIntroductionNotes - What is Geology? Geology is the...

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