A_09%20Pharmacol-Drug-Nutr

A_09%20Pharmacol-Drug-Nutr - ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

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1 Basic Pharmacology and Drug-Nutrient Interactions ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION Oral (PO) Sublingual Rectal (PR) Inhalation Topical Transdermal Intramuscular (IM) Subcutaneous (SC, SubQ) Intravenous (IV) Parenteral Nutrition – provided via IV Drug: Any chemical used for prevention, treatment of symptoms, or cure of diseases The pharmacokinetic stage: absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination The pharmacodynamics stage: (the body’s physiologic response to a drug or combination of drugs) PHARMACOKINETICS DRUG ABSORPTION Drug-associated factors Patient-associated factors DRUG DISTRIBUTION Membrane permeability Plasma protein binding Depot storage DRUG METABOLISM Enzyme systems DRUG EXCRETION PHARMACOKINETICS DRUG ABSORPTION Drug-associated factors Patient-associated factors DRUG DISTRIBUTION Membrane permeability Plasma protein binding Depot storage DRUG METABOLISM DRUG EXCRETION Ionization state, Molecular weight, Solubility, Formulation Presence of food in the GI tract, Stomach acidity, Blood flow to the GI tract, Surface DRUG DISTRIBUTION: Membrane permeability
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2 DRUG DISTRIBUTION Plasma protein binding ** Key Concept :_____________________ DRUG METABOLISM An Active Drug into less- active or inactive forms A Pro-Drug (inactive or less-active drug) into a more active drug Metabolic reactions can transform: PHASE I reactions (nonsynthetic) Drugs are oxidized or reduced to a more polar form PHASE II reactions (synthetic) A polar group is conjugated to the drug Excretion DRUG METABOLISM Phase I:Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP P450) Phase II:GST, QR, etc. ** Key Concept :_____________________ DRUG EXCRETION Urine Feces Enterohepatic circulation Sweat Saliva Tears Breast Milk Exhaled air Factors Which Can Alter Drug Pharmacokinetics Age Pregnancy status Smoking and drinking habits (induction of P450 enzymes)
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A_09%20Pharmacol-Drug-Nutr - ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

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