A_10%20Fluid_%20Electrolytes

A_10%20Fluid_%20Electrolytes - FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES...

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1 FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES Outline – Material from Chapters 7 & 8 • Maintenance of homeostasis • Water/fluid balance Electrolytes • Electrolytes • Essential component of nutrition assessment • Acid-Base balance Functions of water •As a solvent: makes many solutes available for cell function, is the media needed for all reactions •Substrate in metabolic reactions •Structural component providing form to the cell •Essential for digestion, absorption and excretion •Transport medium for nutrients and other substances •Regulation of body temperature
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2 Distribution of body water Intracellular Fluids (ICF) is the water contained within cells Extracellular Fluids (ECF): > Interstitial ( between and around the cells) > Intravascular > Transcellular (secretions within organs) > Transcellular * What about “Third spaces” fluids? Electrolytes: substances or compounds that, when dissolved in water, dissociate into positively and negatively charged ions (cations and anions) Fig. 7-1, p. 121 Normal Anatomy and Physiology of Fluids and Electrolytes – Movement of Fluid between Blood and Interstitial compartments •O smo s i s • Filtration • Two types of pressure – Osmotic » Colloid osmotic pressure (oncotic) – Hydrostatic » i.e. blood pressure Osmotic pressure: Force that pulls water across a semipermeable membrane. It is proportional to the number (concentration) of molecules in solution Hydrostatic pressure : pressure exerted by the fluid on the membrane
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3 Normal Anatomy and Physiology of Fluids and Electrolytes – Movement between Extracellular Fluid and Intracellular Fluid • Osmolarity Osmolality • Osmolality • Blood used as “normal” range for body fluids – 280-320 mOsm/kg H20 – = isotonic – > hypertonic – < hypotonic – Dehydration vs. swelling Serum osmolality = 2 (Na + K) in mEq/l + BUN (mg/dl)/2.8 + Glucose (mg/dl)/18 Normal Anatomy and Physiology of Fluids and Electrolytes Total Body Water Balance – Fluid intake • Liquid at room temp. • Metabolic water Fluid outpu – Fluid output • Sensible losses – Obligatory & facultative urine, feces – RSL, specific gravity • Insensible losses – Respiration, skin by evaporation Body Solutes Electrolyte Requirements – Electrolytes • Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulphate • Ions dissociate to form charged particles – AIs for sodium, potassium, chloride --Maintain normal serum levels
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2010 for the course NUT 116A 72876 taught by Professor Steinberg/stern during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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A_10%20Fluid_%20Electrolytes - FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES...

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