A_10%20Immunology_3%20per%20pg%20color

A_10%20Immunology_3%20per%20pg%20color - 1 Immunology...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Immunology, Nutrition and Disease • Review of basic concepts in immunology • Nutrition/nutrients and the immune system • Examples of nutrition and immune function in chronic disease • Food Allergies Why do we have an immune system? • To protect us against potentially deadly infection • Infectious diseases have been a major selective pressure in human evolution – malaria – Plague Why do we care about nutrition and the • Malnutrition impairs immune function and slows recovery from infections – protein-energy malnutrition (e.g., anorexia) – vitamin deficiencies (e.g., A, D) – mineral deficiencies (e.g., zinc, iron) • Inflammation can adversely impact nutritional status • Inflammation can affect the biochemical indicators of nutritional status immune system? Does the immune system have a role in chronic disease? • Cancer – yes, chronic inflammation (e.g., hepatitis B virus) can cause cancer – yes, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells can identify and kill some types of cancer cells • Heart disease – yes, inflammation mediated by macrophages may exacerbate arterial lesions that cause heart attacks • diet can help to ameliorate this adverse effect • Arthritis – yes, inflammation mediated by antibody and neutrophils destroys cartilage and bone • diet can ameliorate this adverse effect to some extent 2 Inflammatory Conditions with Nutrition Implications • Gut injury • Inflammatory bowel disease • Wounds/trauma • Sepsis/adult respiratory distress syndrome • Organ failure (heart, lung, liver, kidney) • Obesity • Cardiovascular disease • Diabetes • HIV/AIDS • Cancer Trauma, infection or disease Immune Activation Anti-inflammatory vs Pro-inflammatory cytokines Mobilization of nutrients Loss of body mass Tissue damage Adverse outcomes Organization of Immune System • Primary organs – bone marrow • origin of lymphocytes, granulocytes – thymus • education of T cells – self-reacting T cel s deleted in thymus to prevent autoimmunity • Secondary organs – spleen – lymph nodes (LN) • Lymphatic system – brings antigen to LN to sensitize lymphocytes Essential Concepts in Immunology. Weissman, Hood, Wood. Foundations of the Immune System • Organs of the Immune System- originate from stem cells – Central • Bone marrow, thymus – Peripheral • Lymphatic system/ lymph • Spleen • MALT • BALT • GALT – Peyer’s Patches 3 Fig. 9-6, p. 160 Innate and Adaptive Immunity • Innate (Cellular) Immunity First line of defense • requires no previous exposure of individual to a particular pathogen – Barrier Defenses • Adaptive (Humoral) Immunity – first exposure • creates memory – second exposure • more rapid response – cells involved • Skin, conjunctiva, respiratory, GI, urogenital tracts • Includes pH, mucus, lysozymes – Phagocytic cells • macrophages • granulocytes – Inflammation • local • systemic (acute phase response) cells involved...
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A_10%20Immunology_3%20per%20pg%20color - 1 Immunology...

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