Unformatted text preview: -----Nixon and the Backlash
Richard Nixon was a president that resigned in disgrace in 1974. Richard Nixon campaigned for
his own legacy. He wrote a lot of articles portraying himself as an american forign policy. Nixon
has been rehabilitated because he worked hard for his legacy. After his death in 1995, the
media celebrated him as a forign policy genius. He was painted as a tragic figure to take pity on.
Nixon was one of the worst presidents. His actions destroyed freedom movements and his
crimes damaged the entire country. Nixon was a criminal. The worst president when it came to
Nixon had a personality disorder, paranoid. Nixon was a clever and shrewd politician, knowing
what he was doing. Nixon was a very accomplished politician.
HOW AND WHY DID NIXON CAME TO POWER AND HOW HE IS THE WORST PRESIDENT?
In the 1940’s, Nixon rose to power by red-baiting. Nixon accused his opponents as communist.
Nixon grew as being an anti-communist, by smearing other people. The House on american
activities committee gives him national prominence. In Nixon's campaign he smeared Douglas
calling her communist saying that all of her votes were aligned with the communist votes. This is
where Douglass calls Nixon a Tricky Dick! Nixon won the senatorial election in 1950. When it
came for Nixon to win office, he didn't care how he smeared as long as he could win. A vicious
campaign on the part of nixon.
-----“Checkers” Speech 1952
In 1952, Nixon became the obvious choice for vice president for the republican party.
Eisnhowere was popular in WW2 and Nixon was seemend young. After selection it was
revealed a special committee set up to reimburse Nixon. To use this fund to do campaign
mailing and political flight. Nixon decides to pay for television to give this speech. He talks
about attacking his opponents and talks about money and claims of not taking a penny and
paying for everything and not giving up dog checkers. The checkers speech, the dog's name,
that Nixon should have remained on the ticket. He has a meeting with Nikita Khrushchev, a
soviet in late 1950s in a primary, has a kitchen debate of which country is better? and which
system is better? communism or capitalism? Nixon argued that capitalism is better because
women have their life easier. Nixon will be poised to run for president in 1960.
-------Nixon is the nominee for the republicans in 1960. Against Kennedy. A debate with
Kennedy, Nixon looking tired and nervous, not ready like kennedy. Nixon probably would have
won the election but in Illinois there was a deal of vote. Daley mayor knew how to deal with
votes, to manipulate the votes so Kennedy could win. Nixon knew that there had been cheating
in Illinois. When giving his concession speech he gets mad and says they don't have to “kick
dick nixon”. Now he dedicates 6 years to conducting his political comeback proceeding to go to
every state and campaign to help the candidates, building a favor, calling the republicans for
favor when it was his turn to become president. -----Nixon Loses Governor’s Race 1962
People will mock him for saying before to not kick dick nixon again, because he has not gone away.
Nixon is poised to come out of the political wilderness and run for president seen as an upset
victory. When Nixon wins the nomination in 1968 he introduces a new strategy to win the white
house and that is a southern strategy. Nixon knew the civil rights and voting rights act of 1964
and 1965 had changed the political landscape in America, he knew there were unhappy white
voters in the south and west. He began using code words in the campaign. Chief of Staff, HR
Haldeman said that Nixon emphasized the fact the problem is the blacks, to devise the system
while not appearing too. The Anti-Black racist sentiment pervaded much of the country that it
could be a winning issue. A republican strategist who served with Nixon said the same thing,
“you start in 1954 saying inner but in 1968 you can't say inner, and saying forced busing, state
rights”. Nixon would manipulate white voters. Using code words. Nixon was a sophisticated anti
communist, racist. Code words, dog whistles, that it would work. In the 1968 campaign, he
promised peace and honor with vietnam. Having a secret plan to end the war in vietnam. And he
could only reveal after being president. His strategy ran against Hubert Humbrey, vice president.
-----Nixon Vietnam Policy
Nixon began to break every campaign pledge and promised that he had made. Nixon said he
had a secret plan in the war in Vietnam, already knowing the Nixon secret plan to end the war
was really to widen the war and bombing in Laos, invading cambodia. Once he knew he couldn't
widen the war he bombed vietnam. His policies only lengthened the war in vietnam. It ended the
same it would have ended in 1968,69. Nixon had the benefit of seeing what Johnson had done
in 1964. He could have chosen to get out. Nixon didn't learn anything from those four year and
continued with those four years killing more people. By 1968 that the U.S should not be in
Vietnam and get out.
His success in opening china. China had been searching to have a relation with the U.S for
years. China is looking for money, especially with the U.S because they didn't have a
relationship with the soviets, because China is a communist country. Chinese wanted to use the
U.S as a friendly nation. To keep the Soviets in check. The chinese had been begging the U.S to
have a good relationship. The U.S refused because there was no way that Democrats could be
linked to China in any way, politically the republicans would beat them. Nixon was a well known
anti communist. He was insulated from that criticism. Nixon knows he is going to lose vietnam.
To try to distract the public, he will need a moment to be friends with China and meet. -----Nixon Foreign Policy
The focus on china distracted people from other political activities. The Shah of Iran helped
him, supporting his brutal crackdown with iranian people. An iranian revolution, an impact in
America. Marcos was another brutal dictator in the Philippines. Nixon support for both in South Africa,in support of apartheid policies, featuring Nixons racist stance, oopposed the African
National congress at the Mandela led group trying to overturn apartheid and free South Africans
from the brutal regime, Nixon funded and directed a coup against leaders of Chile and
Paraguay. Nixon is more generous to these dictators and willing to back them. The amount of
suffering and oppression caused in part of the Nixon administration to these dictators was hard
to measure and these foreign policy decisions were destructive to Americans in the long run.
Nixon's foreign policy looked genius. He is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people
due to his forighn policy. Nixon's worst crimes occurred at home in the U.S.
-----Nixon Court Appointees
Nixon earned liberal admirers by some of his domestic policies for example he created the EPA,
“the Environmental Protection Agency”, including OSHA “Occupational Safety and Health
Administration”, which was very popular among democrats and liberals. Nixon also proposed a
family assistance plan giving a minimum cash income. If you didn't earn enough, the
government would give you cash. A proposal. Despite those policies, and policies proposals,
Nixon did slash Johnson's war on poverty programs basically he ended.Opposed any civil rights
and black freedom movement,crack down the freedom movements. William Rand Chris and
William Rehnquist who became the chief justice of the U.S have an impact in shaping U.S
federal policies. A mixed bag of domestic policies. Nixon is focused on attacking his political
-----Nixon's Domestic Crimes
He attacked them in the media. He set out to attack the people themselves, he wanted to
destroy his potential enemies. Nixon had the CIA wiretap all of his suspected opponents
including the media so. Harassing particular individuals and putting them on the media. The
plumbers were designed to make sure no one leaked any information from the white house. He
had his administration sabotage any suspected enemy. The White House Counsel at John Dean
recalled Nixon said “to use the available federal machinery to screw our political enemies”.
Nixon was using his administration, the executive office, CIA and FBI agencies to try to attack
his opponents. The president is able to start directing the government agencies against
individual opponents. Should scare all Americans, a form of dictatorship. He wrote an enemy list
of people that opposed him. He sent the list to his administration and instructed them to perform
dirty tricks on them like sending phony letters. Releasing it to the media, to smear them, release
false rumors, endless. Nixon was using his administration staff and sending false rumors. He
used the justice department to judge his opponents.
-----Nixon's Personal Crimes
As Nixon's re-election approached in 1972, he stepped up his intimidation. For example, Nixon
took millions of $’s in illegal campaign money so one of the things Nixon would do is he would
try to blackmail people to give him campaign contributions. The story of George Steinbremmer,
the owner of the Yankees baseball team. In the early 1970’s, Before he made his money in the
shipping industry in New York. Nixon went to Steibremmer and threatened him that if
Steibremmer didn't support Nixon in his campaign, Nixon would screw his shipping business
and initiate policies, audit him, to lose his company. Steinremer had to contribute money to his
campaign. Like the milk industry, in March of 1971, Nixon took 3 million dollars from the milk
industry as a campaign contribution and then Nixon announced the raising of price supports for
milk after the contribution. Nixon's way to operate, to give him money and please them with favors. Nixon set up an illegal slush fund for being used against Democrats, his separate funds
to screw Democrats and his administration was engaged in regularly stealing campaign file from
Democrats, getting into offices and stealing papers. Nixon had the audacity to steal taxpayer
money to improve his california home. He forged his taxes and used it to rebuild his house.
Forged a 500 and 76 thousand dollar tax deduction for his vice presidential papers. All of these
things were illegal. As Nixon engaged in these illegal activities, taking bribes and kickbacks,
having to resign from office. Every single one of these things had been happening before.
Before watergate happened it was happening illegally.
-----Watergate Break-In 1972
Nixon had done things illegally, On June 16, 1972, Five burglars were arrested for getting into
the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate complex in Washington DC. The 5
were arrested and they were trying to wiretap or fix the wiretap headquarters, initially planned
Devices in May of 72. When they returned on June 16th, trying to fix some of the bugs they had
planted, the problem was that there was a security guard who noticed that there was tape over
one of the doors leading from the big garage to the building to remain unlocked, and pulled the
tape off. After doing his rounds, he noticed the tape was back on, and called the police. The
police discovered these 5 guys inside the DNC office. There was a lookout outside that saw the
police, to radio them but unfortunately the walkie talkies didn't work to tell them. When they
were caught, one man was carrying an address book with a white house contact listed and it
was discovered another burglar was working for a creep or the committee to re-elect the
president. The links to the white House for the burglary were obvious.
When the story first broke about the Burglary. Nixon was asked at the press conference. Nixon
said that “the white house had no involvement in whatever in the particular incident”. The FBI
traced the money back to creep, the money the burglars had to re-elect the president, seems a
fitting acronym for Nixon, creep. It was pretty clear that the white House was involved. Nixon
was concerned and Nixon instructed the CIA to tell the FBI, to call off the investigation for
National Security Reasons, an excuse for presidents when they do something. He directed the
payment of Hush Money to the individuals involved in the break in, to not talk and say anything
and they would take care of their family and not reveal anything. The burglars were sentenced
to prison. The story was over. Nixon's cover up and hush money payment had worked. -----Woodward, Bernstein and Dean
To Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Bernstein they kept the story alive.
Woodward had a secret source as guidance to the story, the informant deep throat, with the two
reporters working on it and making connections. Nobody knew who deep throat was. It wasn't
until late 90s, an investigation themselves, there was a senate investigating committee and
during the committee was in operation, they got one of the burglars to admit White House involvement, opening the doors to Watergate. The case was reimbursed again, making it clear
that the white House was involved. Nixon decides to sacrifice two of his Chiefs Haldeman and
Ehrichman two of his higher aides in the White House, Nixon's next plan was to announce to
take responsibility for the mistakes of others. Blaming it on them, that maybe they were involved
but not him. The Senate widens and asks them about their involvement. In May of 1973, John
Dean, White House Counsel testified that Nixon knew about the break in and Nixon was
covering it up. Being a huge revelation in the Watergate scandal. Dean said that Nixon had
installed secret taping devices to record all conversations which now meant that the tapes would
become critical. To reveal everything.
-----Saturday Night Massacre
In an effort to demonstrate Nixon's innocence, Nixon decided to appoint a special prosecutor to
investigate. He thought he could appoint a special prosecutor and take his energy out of the
investigation. The man that was appointed to be the prosecutor was Archibald Cox, as he was
appointed he asked for Nixon’s tapes. Nixon refuses. Nixon had hoped the investigation would
drag for months. On Oct. 20th 1973, Nixon ordered his Attorney General to fire Cox the Attorney
General refuses and resigns. Now the Assistant Attorney General is going to refuse to fire Cox
and resign. Then Nixon goes to the Solicitor General and wants to fire Cox but the third guy
Robert Bork agrees to fire Cox, known as the Saturday Night Massacre. Making Nixon look
guilty. A new prosecutor was selected and Joesqui picked up where Cox left out, in wanting the
tapes, to damage Nixon's Credibility.
Nixon decided that he had no choice in the matter. Coming out with a plan to release transcripts
of the tapes. Nixon decides that he’ll put him down. They spend weeks in the white House
debating on how to edit them, because Nixon swears so much. Not knowing to leave the cuss
words in or out, so they replace it with expletive deleted. They released the transcripts. The
special prosecutor went to court to force Nixon to turn in the tapes. In August of 1974, the
supreme court said he had to turn it in. Nixon knew about the break in but would cover it up. In a
tape it reveals how Nixon knew and orders him to cover it up and to stop the CIA and the FBI.
This reveals that Nixon ordered the break ins and was covering it up. Nixon had no political
support. Republicans abandoned him. Congress told Nixon that he would be removed and
convicted and the only thing he could do is resign or he would be impeached.
-----Nixon resigns Aug. 9, 1974
The country mounting in their opposition to Nixon with demonstrations increasing and no
political support, Nixon has no choice. Nixon becomes the first and only president to resign from
office. -----Ford Pardon’s Nixon
The new president was Gerald Ford. Ford was vice president, replacing Spiro Agnew. Had been
removed for bribes and kickbacks. Ford was new vice president and new president and Ford
had been in the U.S House of representatives. Ford made the decision after Nixon's resignation
was to pardon Nixon of all crimes, ford went on tv to announce this decision. Ford says that a
long national nightmare is over, it would be better to pardon Nixon and move on. In the end,
Nixon manages to escape all prosecution and jail time. -----Nixon's Legacy
No president before or since, has broken many laws at the way Nixon did. His criminal acts
alone, making him one of the worst presidents in American History. Nixon in the Watergate
scandal helps turn people off to politics. Nixon helps to fuel this cynicism,apathy, a move away
from civil engagement in the U.S. Nixon and the whole Watergate scandal fuels that move.
Nixon is forced out and managed to destroy the freedom movement, black freedom movement,
indian movement and although Nixon may have been defeated and couldn't serve his rest of his
presidencies, his larger goals were not defeated. Nixon manages to break the link between
white and black workers. There has been a coalition among african american and white working
class people, after WW2, that coalition completely fell apart in the late 60’s and 70’s. Nixon's
strategy in mobilizing the South and the West as reactionary Republican strongholds. 50 years
on + the south and the west will be reactionary and republcian place in America. Nixon was able
to identify unify and mobilize those regions for the Republicans, what Nixon did is break the old
FDR coalition and wins white working class men to the republican party.
-----Reactionary Voices unleashed
Nixon managed to flood the government and media with reactionary voices to help in the future.
Looking at the U.S in the 70s. There weren't these kinds of raabid voices. Nixon unleashes them
and brings them to power, giving them credibility. G Gordon Liddy was one of the watergate
break in get a voice. Pat Buchanan knwown as a neo-nazi and brought into mainstream media
outlets. Gives legitimacy to politics. Nixon should not be remembered as a positive president. -----Allan Bakke Case
One of the signs of the emerging backlash in the 70’s wasn't just Nixon. Allen Bakke case has to
do with affirmative action, in 1978 Allan Bakke applied to medical school at UC Davis, Bakke
didn't get in. Bakke claimed that he wasn't getting in because of affirmative action policies,
created in the 1960s to try and correct the historical injustice to Africna Americans who were
barred from jobs and from institutions. Bakke claimed affirmative action was discriminating
against him in this case he claimed that he had a higher undergraduate GPA than the average
GPA of minority students admitted to the program. The whole basis of the program, or argument was higher GPA than black students GPA who were admitted ahead of him, not being fair. That
was his argument. Bakke didn't challenge 36 white students that were admitted having lower
GPA then him. Also 5 students admitted because their parents gave money to U.C legats,
because their parents gave money to the school, having class privileges. Bakke didn't mention
getting accepted to another school. Bakke was in his 30s being old, he didn challenge the age
policies. Bakke only challenged affirmative action that he had received special privileges, that
was not segregated. He was only looking at GPA. Bakki doesn't understand that the admission
was not only on GPA, they calculated how someone was to be a good doctor, being good to
speak to people. When he was interviewed, they saw that he wasn't a good doctor to talk to
-----The court ruling is instructive. Goes to the supreme court. When it's decided, the court says
the Bakke has to be admitted to the school. Justice Powell said that White individuals might be
so upset with what they perceived as denial of rights and had to be admitted. W...
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